Dissertation hearing defense delsa r bush april 7 2009
Download
1 / 68

Perceived Justice and Barriers and Facilitators to the Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforc - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 123 Views
  • Uploaded on

Perceived Justice and Barriers and Facilitators to the Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida. Dissertation Hearing Defense Delsa R. Bush April 7, 2009. INTRODUCTION. Introduction to the Problem.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Perceived Justice and Barriers and Facilitators to the Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforc' - yehuda


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Dissertation hearing defense delsa r bush april 7 2009

Perceived Justice and Barriers and Facilitators to the Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

Dissertation Hearing Defense

Delsa R. Bush

April 7, 2009


Introduction
INTRODUCTION Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida


Introduction to the problem
Introduction to the Problem Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Women, minorities, increasing within organizations

  • Women and minorities occupy the lower rungs in leadership positions

  • 17,000 Law Enforcement Organization

  • Women in chief executive positions 1%

  • Glass Ceiling Effect


Purposes of the study
Purposes of the Study Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Descriptive: Study sample in terms of all variables, human capital assets, demographic characteristics, perceived procedural justice, distributive justice, barriers and facilitators to career advancement, and attainment of leadership positions according to organizational characteristics


Purposes of study cont
Purposes of Study Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Exploratory (Comparative)1:

  • Exploratory (Comparative)2: Determine differences in all study variables according to race and gender

  • Explanatory (Correlational): Determine if study variables are significant explanatory variables of attainment of law enforcement positions

  • Contribute to the Empirical Validity of Cotter et al. (2001) criterion based glass ceiling effect


Definition of terms
Definition of Terms Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Glass ceiling

  • Human capital assets

  • Demographic characteristics

  • Organizational characteristics

  • Procedural justice

  • Distributive justice

  • Perceived barriers and facilitators to career advancement


Justification
Justification Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Significant - contribution to knowledge

  • Researchable – scientific, measureable, tested

  • Feasible - participants are available


Delimitations and scope
Delimitations and Scope Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Setting (geographic) is confined to the State of Florida.

  • Setting (organizational) 100 or more officers

  • Target population law enforcement officers only local and county only


Review of the literature
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Leader label

  • Self Conceptualization

  • Tokenism

  • Brass Ceiling

  • Equity Theory

  • Procedural Justice

  • Distributive Justice

  • Perceived Barriers and Facilitators

  • Glass Ceiling


Gaps in the literature
Gaps in the Literature Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Literature limited to corporate organizations

  • Effects of race and gender combined is ignored

  • Glass ceiling effect not synthesized


Theoretical framework
Theoretical Framework Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Glass ceiling effect

  • Equity theory

  • Procedural justice

  • Distributive justice

  • Perceived barriers and facilitators to career advancement (Lyness & Thompson, 2001)


Hypothesized model

Human Capital Assets Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

Demographic

Race

Gender

Organizational Characteristics

Procedural Justice

Distributive Justice

Barriers and Facilitators to Career Advancement

H2

H3

H6

H4

H5

H1a

H1b

Attainment of Leadership Positions

H1c

Hypothesized Model


Research question 1
Research Question 1 Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Descriptive

    • Sample in terms of all variables

      • Human capital assets

      • Demographic characteristics

      • Organizational characteristics

      • Procedural justice

      • Distributive justice

      • Perceived barriers in facilitator to career advancement


Research question 2
Research Question 2 Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Exploratory (comparative)

    • Differences according to organizational characteristics


Hypothesis 1
Hypothesis 1 Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Exploratory (comparative) 2

    • Differences according to demographic characteristics

      • Race and Gender


Hypothesis 2 6
Hypothesis 2-6 Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Explanatory (correlational)

    • Significant

    • Leadership positions


Research methods
RESEARCH METHODS Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida


Research design
Research Design Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Quantitative

  • Non-experimental

  • Descriptive (research question 1)

  • Exploratory (comparative) research question 2, hypothesis 1 and sub hypothesis

  • Explanatory (Correlational, hypotheses 2-6)

  • Self report online survey research


Population sampling sample size and setting
Population, Sampling, Sample Size, and Setting Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Target population (2500)

  • Accessible population (entire target population (with e-mail addresses)

    • No more than 2500 officers

    • 75 local and state

  • No sampling plan (entire population)


Sample size
Sample Size Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • The sample size needed for data analysis

  • Green’s (1991) estimate sample size n (sample size) = 50 + 8 (m)=258

  • m = number of explanatory variables =26

  • 286


Sample size cont
Sample Size Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • 428 responses

  • 286 responses valid (data analysis)

  • 11.64% response overall


Setting
Setting Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • State of Florida

  • 75 law enforcement agencies

  • Within Organizations 100 or more

  • At home or Office


Instrumentation
Instrumentation Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Six-part online Survey

  • 73 questions self report

  • Approximately 20 minutes to complete.

  • Electronically via a website.


Instrumentation cont
Instrumentation Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Part 1 - Human capital assets (5)

  • Leadership attainment (1)

    • Developed by researcher

    • Education

    • Training

    • Experience

    • Tenure

    • Level of Knowledge


Instrumentation cont1
Instrumentation Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Part 2 - Demographic characteristics (4)

    • Race

    • Gender

    • Age

    • Ethnicity


Instrumentation cont2
Instrumentation Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Part 3 - Organizational characteristics (4)

    • Size

    • State/local

    • Union affiliation

    • Promotional process


Instrumentation cont3
Instrumentation cont Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida.

  • Part 4 - Distributive justice (6)

    • Moorman (1991)

    • Cronbach’s alpha .94

    • Internal consistency acceptable

    • Above .70 (Nunnally, 1978)

    • Confirmatory factor analysis .67-.89


Instrumentation cont4
Instrumentation cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Part 5 - Procedural justice (6)

    • Price and Muller (1996)

    • Cronbach’s alpha, .82

    • Exploratory factor analysis >.80


Instrumentation cont5
Instrumentation Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Part 6 - Perceived barriers and facilitators to career advancement (47)

    • Lyness & Thompson (2000)

    • Perceived Barriers 6a (26)

      • Six subscales

      • coefficient alphas .69-.84

      • Factor analysis not reported


Instrumentation cont6
Instrumentation Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Perceived Facilitators 6b (21)

    • Five sub-scales

    • Coefficient alphas sub-scale .70-.90

    • Validity not reported


Data collection ethical considerations
Data Collection/Ethical Considerations Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

Document preparation

  • Permission for the use of questionnaires x 4

  • SurveyMonkey.com policies and procedures

  • Online survey

  • IRB application and protocol

  • Waiver of signed consent

  • Placed on website SurveyMonkey.com


Data collection cont
Data Collection Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Anonymous, group responses,

  • No e-mail List Management tool

  • Survey Responses Collected Daily

  • 31 days

  • IRB form 8

  • The data will be destroyed after one year.


Method of data analysis
Method of Data Analysis Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Validity of scales

    • Principle Component analysis

  • Internal Consistency Reliability

    Cronbach’s Alpha

  • Divergent Validity

    • Pearson r correlations


Data analysis cont
Data Analysis Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 14

  • Data coding

  • Research Question 1:Exploratory data analysis (descriptive statistics)

  • Research Question 2: Independent t tests, Chi-square, Pearson r


Data analysis cont1
Data Analysis Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Data analysis hypotheses testing

    • H1a: Independent t tests x 14

    • H1b: Independent t tests x 14

    • H1c:14 ANOVA one way with post hoc comparison

    • Hypotheses 2-6:Pearson r, Point-biserial, Separate multiple regression analysis (stepwise)


Results
RESULTS Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida


Results cont
Results Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Validity and Reliability of Instruments


Results research question 1
Results Research Question 1 Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Human capital assets

  • Demographic characteristics

  • Organizational characteristics

  • Perceptions of Procedural Justice

  • Perceptions of Distributive Justice

  • Perceived Barriers

  • Perceived Facilitators


Human capital assets
Human Capital Assets Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida


Human capital assets cont
Human Capital Assets Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida


Demographic characteristics
Demographic Characteristics Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Race


Demographic characteristics cont
Demographic Characteristics Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida


Demographic characteristics cont1
Demographic Characteristics Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida


Research question 21
Research Question 2 Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

Differences in human Capital Assets, demographic characteristics, perceptions of procedural justice, distributive justice, barriers and facilitators to career advancement, according to organizational characteristics


Differences according to organizational characteristics
Differences According to Organizational Characteristics Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida


Research hypothesis 1
Research Hypothesis 1 Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

African American women perceive less justice, more Barriers Fewer Facilitators, and attain fewer leadership positions than other racial groups


H1a partially supported
H1a Partially Supported Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida


H1b partially supported
H1b Partially Supported Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida


H1c partially supported
H1c partially supported Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

Hypothesized Order of Perception

White Males

African American Male

White Females

African American Females

+ -


H1c partially supported1
H1c Partially Supported Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida


Hypotheses 2 4 results
Hypotheses 2-4 Results Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida


Hypothesis 5 6 results
Hypothesis 5-6 Results Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida


Evaluation of research methods
Evaluation of Research Methods Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

Internal Validity

  • Strengths

    • The quantitative, explanatory (correlational)

    • Procedures for data analysis are appropriate

    • Appropriate sample size

    • Instruments used in the survey are valid and reliable

  • Weaknesses

    • Research design non-experimental

    • Instruments with moderate validity

    • Electronic Survey


Evaluation of research methods cont
Evaluation Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida of Research Methods Cont.

External Validity

  • Strengths

    • Entire population

    • Natural setting

    • Large sample (entire population)

    • Homogenous population


Evaluation of methodology cont
Evaluation of methodology Cont Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida.

External Validity

  • Weaknesses

    • Homogenous target population

    • In one state

    • Not generalizable/geographic


Discussion
DISCUSSION Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida


Summary and interpretation
Summary and Interpretation Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • 70% of training at institutions other than the FBI or Southern Police Institute.

  • Human capital were very significant explanatory barriers, whereas race and gender was hypothesized.

  • 70% belonged to organizations with more than 250 employees.


Summary and interpretations cont
Summary and Interpretations Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Labor unions. 85% unions

  • 94% promoted

  • As aggregate, moderate perceptions of PJ, DJ, BCA,FCA.


Summary and interpretations cont1
Summary and Interpretations Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Lower level leaders receive less advanced training

  • Appointed= higher knowledge, higher positions, in smaller agencies/sig.


Practical implications
Practical Implications Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Support training, and education

  • Training/education= human capital assets =attainment of leadership positions

  • Remove barriers and facilitators to facilitate the attainment of leadership positions

  • Change Culture within organizations


Practical implications cont
Practical Implications Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Lack of Culture largest Barrier

  • Glass Ceiling Effect diminished by removal of Barriers

  • Expand Mentoring programs


Conclusions
Conclusions Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • No gender or racial significant differences in the attainment of leadership positions

  • Over representation=Whites, and larger organizations

  • Majority occupied lower level positions

  • Inverse relationship attainment of leadership positions and organizational size

  • More African Americans employed in county vs local


Conclusions cont
Conclusions Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Appointed /higher perceptions of facilitators

  • Appointed more knowledgeable/higher positions

  • Females, more barriers in significant subscale Lack of Culture Fit.

  • African Americans, greater barriers and total barriers

  • White males ,fewer barriers than any other group.


Conclusions cont1
Conclusions Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • African American Males,more facilitators/sig

  • Age significant Explanatory variable

  • Human Capital Assets significant explanatory variable ALP

  • African American females /less leadership positions/not sig.


Limitations
Limitations Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Non-experimental.

  • State of Florida.

  • Local and county law

  • Agencies with more than 100 sworn law enforcement officers

  • Online research design was limited


Recommendations
Recommendations Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Scales and surveys specifically designed for law enforcement organizations

  • Research design interviews and questionnaires

  • Replication-national sample of law enforcement organizations


Recommendations cont
Recommendations Cont. Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

  • Conduct construct validity studies of scales

  • Additional variables incorporated into model


The end
The End Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

Questions and Answers


ad