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Conceptualizing, Measuring and Understanding Students’ Post College Civic Engagement: What we know about the impact of service-learning. Kimberly Misa Jodi Anderson Higher Education Research Institute ( http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/heri/heri.html ) UCLA Continuums of Service Conference 2005.

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Conceptualizing, Measuring and Understanding Students’ Post College Civic Engagement: What we know about the impact of service-learning

Kimberly Misa

Jodi Anderson

Higher Education Research Institute

(http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/heri/heri.html)

UCLA

Continuums of Service Conference 2005

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HERI

UCLA Graduate School of Education & Information Studies

CIRP

Funded Research

Freshman

Survey

YFCY

CSS

  • Atlantic Philanthropies
  • Templeton
  • NIH
  • Etc.

Faculty Survey

data sets
Data Sets
  • Trends Data of Entering College Students
  • 2004 Cohort of Entering College Students
    • State Farm’s Growing to Greatness Yearbook
  • 1994 Cohort of Entering College Students, who were also surveyed in 1998 and 2004
    • Understanding the Effects of Service-Learning Study
2004 freshman survey data
2004 Freshman Survey Data
  • 293,000 students entering college
  • Data are weighted to population of first-time, full-time students at four-year institutions
characteristics of entering college students

Characteristics of Entering College Students:

What are patterns of service-learning participation and community service requirements among high schools?

What are patterns of service-learning participation among students?

understanding the effects of service learning
Understanding the Effects of Service Learning
  • Funded by Atlantic Philanthropies, USA, Inc.
  • Uses data from the Freshman Survey (1994), the College Student Survey (1998) and created additional survey to follow up with this cohort in the post-college years (2004).
  • Will analyze data from 2004/05 Faculty Survey
how do your institutions conceptualize civic engagement
How do your institutions conceptualize civic engagement?
  • Are there specific desired civic outcomes for students at your institution?
  • If so, how are they articulated?
  • What are the key experiences and to accomplish the desired outcomes?
civic participation general populace
Civic Participation(General Populace)
  • Putnam (1999)
    • today’s citizens are less involved in collective community efforts, less likely to vote in elections, and less likely to take on leadership positions and participate in traditional political activities
    • However, is also a matter of being differentially engaged – e.g. while membership in church-related groups, labor unions, fraternal organizations, and veterans groups has declined, it has largely been countered by an increase in professional group membership, ethnically affiliated groups, and hobby and sport groups
civic voluntarism general populace
Civic Voluntarism(General Populace)
  • Verba, Schlozman, and Brady (1995)
    • focus on an individual’s motivation and capacity to participate in civic life
    • explore background characteristics that predispose individuals to civic and political participation
    • Examine modes and intensity of participation different groups exercise their civic / political voice
conceptions of good citizens
Conceptions of Good Citizens
  • Westheimer and Kahne (2002)
    • Typology of Citizenship

Three conceptions of the “good citizen”:

      • personally responsible citizen follows the law, pays her taxes, volunteers, and contributes to charitable causes
      • participatory citizen participates in “…the civic affairs and the social life of the community at local, state, and national levels”
      • justice oriented citizen emphasizes need to analyze the root causes of social problems in order to identify and critique unjust social structures and bring about systemic change
connecting thinking and acting
Connecting Thinking and Acting
  • Eyler and Giles (1999)
    • consider civic engagement as process that builds social capital (networks) which can be drawn upon to address social problems.
    • utilize five elements of citizenship: Values, knowledge, skills, efficacy, and commitment
connecting learning and community
Connecting Learning and Community
  • Dewey (1944)
    • Curriculum: material should be relevant to current social conditions and provide opportunities to delve into problem-based learning
    • Pedagogy: Classrooms should utilize problem-based learning, should encourage dialogue and interaction, and should offer opportunities for critical reflection
what does your institution want to know about the effects of service learning and civic engagement
What does your institution want to know about the effects of service-learning and civic engagement?
  • Based upon how your institution conceptualizes civic engagement, how does your institution measure desired outcomes?
  • If they don’t currently have evaluation tools, what might some of these outcomes be and how could you identify them?
heri survey items
Behaviors (community service, political engagement, consumer behavior, careers)

Values (helping others, being a community leader)

Beliefs (self-efficacy, people have equal opportunities to succeed)

Lifestyle (children, school, watching TV)

HERI Survey Items
respondents overview 2004 post college follow up
Respondents Overview 2004 Post-College Follow-Up
  • 83.5% work full-time
  • 31.9% hold a graduate degree
  • 37.2 % are working toward a graduate degree
  • 79.2% have no children
  • 55% in partnership/married
2004 post college survey
51.2% watch at least six hours of television per week

4.9% volunteer over six hours per week

15.1% say that becoming a community leader is ‘very important’ to them

66.7% boycotted products

51.5% signed an email petition

13.2% contacted newspaper or magazine

2004 Post-College Survey
2004 civic engagement
64.5% occasionally or frequently discussed community issues

13.1% occasionally or frequently played a leadership role in improving community

86.9% voted in a national election

34.9% have donated professional services

23.6% have donated $ to political org/cause

69.4% have donated $ to human/cmty service organization

2004 Civic Engagement
2004 volunteerism
2004: Volunteerism

Occasionally

percent marking goal helping others in difficulty as very important or essential
Percent marking goal: helping others in difficulty as ‘very important’ or ‘essential’
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Student

Characteristics

Institutional

Culture

(size, faculty values)

College Experience

Family &

Culture

Job, children

Graduate School

Post-College Beliefs,

Behaviors

conceptual framework
Conceptual Framework

College

Experiences

Peer Group Influences

Diverse

Interactions

Curricular &

Co-curricular

Personal

Attributes

Outcomes

Volunteering

Consumer

Activism

Civic

Engagement

Pre-college

Experiences

Pretests / Proxies

Background

Characteristics

High School

Activities

Post-College

Experiences

Activities

Values

multiple regression analyses
Multiple Regression Analyses
  • Goes beyond descriptive statistics
  • Allows to control for background characteristics
  • Elucidates relationships between background characteristics, college experiences, and outcomes
2004 volunteerism 80
2004 Volunteerism (α= .80)
  • Hours per week: Volunteer work

(None=1, <1=2, 1-2=3, 3+=4)

  • Performed volunteer work in the past year

(Frequently, Occasionally, None)

2004 volunteerism44
2004 Volunteerism
  • 1994 variables Significance
    • Socioeconomic Status +++
    • High School GPA +++
    • Volunteering ++
    • Frequency of discussing religion +++
    • Value: Helping others in difficulty ++
  • 1998 variables Significance
    • Volunteering while in college +++
    • Ethnic studies course +++
    • Attd racial/cultural awareness wkshp +
    • Level of cross-racial interaction +++
    • Internship Program +
    • Fraternity/Sorority ---
civic engagement 75
Civic Engagement: (α=.75)
  • Worked on a community project w/ a govt agency/prog
  • Played a leadership role in improving your community
  • Used on-line communication w/ family & friends to social and political awareness
  • Worked w/ others to solve a problem in the community where you live

(Never=1, Once or twice=2, Occasionally=3, Frequently=4)

civic engagement
Civic Engagement
  • 1994 variables Significance
    • Political views +++
    • Volunteering +++
    • Frequency of discussing politics +++
    • Frequency of part in org demos/protests +++
    • Self-rating: Understanding of others +
  • 1998 variables Significance
    • Ethnic studies course +++
    • Attd racial/cultural awareness wkshp +++
    • Level of cross-racial interaction +
    • Women’s studies course +++
    • Leadership Training +
    • Student Government ++
    • Fraternity/Sorority ---
    • Faculty Support: Research +++
political activism 81
Political Activism (α=.81)
  • Donated money: Political candidate/cause
  • Gave opinion: Contact/visit public official
  • Worked w/ political group/official
  • Displayed Button/Sticker/Sign
  • Door to Door canvassing

(Never=1, Once or twice=2, Occasionally=3, Frequently=4)

  • Part in Protests and Demonstrations
  • Worked in a local, state, natl political campaign

(Never=1, Occasionally=2, Frequently=1)

political activism
Political Activism
  • 1994 variables Significance
    • Political views +++
    • Volunteering ++
    • Frequency of discussing politics +++
    • Frequency of discussing religion ++
  • 1998 variables Significance
    • Attd racial/cultural awareness wkshp +++
    • Level of cross-racial interaction ++
    • Student Government ++
    • Fraternity/Sorority -
consumer activism 83
Consumer Activism (α=.83)
  • Not bought something b/c of the values of the company (since leaving college)

(Never=1, Once or twice=2, Occasionally=3, Frequently=4)

  • Bought something b/c of the values of the company (since leaving college)

(Never=1, Once or twice=2, Occasionally=3, Frequently=4)

consumer activism outcomes
Consumer Activism: Outcomes
  • 1994 variables Significance
    • SAT composite +++
    • Political views +++
    • Volunteering +++
    • Self-rating: Intellectual Self-confidence ++
  • 1998 variables Significance
    • Ethnic studies course +++
    • Attd racial/cultural awareness wkshp +++
    • Level of cross-racial interaction +
    • Fraternity/Sorority
visit us on the web
VISIT US ON THE WEB

HERI:

http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/heri

Understanding The Effects of Service Learning

(The Atlantic Project):

http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/heri/understanding_service_learning.html

Lori Vogelgesang, Project Director: [email protected]

Kim Misa, Research Analyst: [email protected]

Jodi Anderson, Research Analyst: [email protected]

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