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Conceptualizing, Measuring and Understanding Students’ Post College Civic Engagement: What we know about the impact of service-learning. Kimberly Misa Jodi Anderson Higher Education Research Institute ( http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/heri/heri.html ) UCLA Continuums of Service Conference 2005.

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Conceptualizing, Measuring and Understanding Students’ Post College Civic Engagement: What we know about the impact of service-learning

Kimberly Misa

Jodi Anderson

Higher Education Research Institute

(http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/heri/heri.html)

UCLA

Continuums of Service Conference 2005


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HERI Post College Civic Engagement: What we know about the impact of service-learning

UCLA Graduate School of Education & Information Studies

CIRP

Funded Research

Freshman

Survey

YFCY

CSS

  • Atlantic Philanthropies

  • Templeton

  • NIH

  • Etc.

Faculty Survey


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Data Sets Post College Civic Engagement: What we know about the impact of service-learning

  • Trends Data of Entering College Students

  • 2004 Cohort of Entering College Students

    • State Farm’s Growing to Greatness Yearbook

  • 1994 Cohort of Entering College Students, who were also surveyed in 1998 and 2004

    • Understanding the Effects of Service-Learning Study


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2004 Freshman Survey Data Post College Civic Engagement: What we know about the impact of service-learning

  • 293,000 students entering college

  • Data are weighted to population of first-time, full-time students at four-year institutions


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Characteristics of Entering College Students: Post College Civic Engagement: What we know about the impact of service-learning

What are patterns of service-learning participation and community service requirements among high schools?

What are patterns of service-learning participation among students?



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Percent of CIRP Respondents that Reported a as part of a classHigh School Community Service Requirement




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Service Required: High School as part of a class




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Understanding the Effects of Service Learning as part of a class

  • Funded by Atlantic Philanthropies, USA, Inc.

  • Uses data from the Freshman Survey (1994), the College Student Survey (1998) and created additional survey to follow up with this cohort in the post-college years (2004).

  • Will analyze data from 2004/05 Faculty Survey


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How do your institutions conceptualize civic engagement? as part of a class

  • Are there specific desired civic outcomes for students at your institution?

  • If so, how are they articulated?

  • What are the key experiences and to accomplish the desired outcomes?


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Civic Participation as part of a class(General Populace)

  • Putnam (1999)

    • today’s citizens are less involved in collective community efforts, less likely to vote in elections, and less likely to take on leadership positions and participate in traditional political activities

    • However, is also a matter of being differentially engaged – e.g. while membership in church-related groups, labor unions, fraternal organizations, and veterans groups has declined, it has largely been countered by an increase in professional group membership, ethnically affiliated groups, and hobby and sport groups


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Civic Voluntarism as part of a class(General Populace)

  • Verba, Schlozman, and Brady (1995)

    • focus on an individual’s motivation and capacity to participate in civic life

    • explore background characteristics that predispose individuals to civic and political participation

    • Examine modes and intensity of participation different groups exercise their civic / political voice


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Conceptions of Good Citizens as part of a class

  • Westheimer and Kahne (2002)

    • Typology of Citizenship

      Three conceptions of the “good citizen”:

      • personally responsible citizen follows the law, pays her taxes, volunteers, and contributes to charitable causes

      • participatory citizen participates in “…the civic affairs and the social life of the community at local, state, and national levels”

      • justice oriented citizen emphasizes need to analyze the root causes of social problems in order to identify and critique unjust social structures and bring about systemic change


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Connecting Thinking and Acting as part of a class

  • Eyler and Giles (1999)

    • consider civic engagement as process that builds social capital (networks) which can be drawn upon to address social problems.

    • utilize five elements of citizenship: Values, knowledge, skills, efficacy, and commitment


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Connecting Learning and Community as part of a class

  • Dewey (1944)

    • Curriculum: material should be relevant to current social conditions and provide opportunities to delve into problem-based learning

    • Pedagogy: Classrooms should utilize problem-based learning, should encourage dialogue and interaction, and should offer opportunities for critical reflection


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What does your institution want to know about the effects of service-learning and civic engagement?

  • Based upon how your institution conceptualizes civic engagement, how does your institution measure desired outcomes?

  • If they don’t currently have evaluation tools, what might some of these outcomes be and how could you identify them?


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Behaviors (community service, political engagement, consumer behavior, careers)

Values (helping others, being a community leader)

Beliefs (self-efficacy, people have equal opportunities to succeed)

Lifestyle (children, school, watching TV)

HERI Survey Items


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Respondents Overview behavior, careers) 2004 Post-College Follow-Up

  • 83.5% work full-time

  • 31.9% hold a graduate degree

  • 37.2 % are working toward a graduate degree

  • 79.2% have no children

  • 55% in partnership/married


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51.2% watch at least six hours of television per week behavior, careers)

4.9% volunteer over six hours per week

15.1% say that becoming a community leader is ‘very important’ to them

66.7% boycotted products

51.5% signed an email petition

13.2% contacted newspaper or magazine

2004 Post-College Survey


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64.5% occasionally or frequently discussed community issues behavior, careers)

13.1% occasionally or frequently played a leadership role in improving community

86.9% voted in a national election

34.9% have donated professional services

23.6% have donated $ to political org/cause

69.4% have donated $ to human/cmty service organization

2004 Civic Engagement


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2004: Volunteerism behavior, careers)

Occasionally


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Volunteering in 2004 behavior, careers)



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Percent marking goal: helping others in difficulty as ‘very important’ or ‘essential’




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2004 Participated in a Demonstration or Protest important’ or ‘essential’


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2004 Boycotting to Protest a Company’s Values important’ or ‘essential’


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2004 Buycotting Company to Support its Values important’ or ‘essential’


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2004 Employment Sector important’ or ‘essential’







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Student Through Your Job

Characteristics

Institutional

Culture

(size, faculty values)

College Experience

Family &

Culture

Job, children

Graduate School

Post-College Beliefs,

Behaviors


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Conceptual Framework Through Your Job

College

Experiences

Peer Group Influences

Diverse

Interactions

Curricular &

Co-curricular

Personal

Attributes

Outcomes

Volunteering

Consumer

Activism

Civic

Engagement

Pre-college

Experiences

Pretests / Proxies

Background

Characteristics

High School

Activities

Post-College

Experiences

Activities

Values


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Multiple Regression Analyses Through Your Job

  • Goes beyond descriptive statistics

  • Allows to control for background characteristics

  • Elucidates relationships between background characteristics, college experiences, and outcomes


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2004 Volunteerism Through Your Job(α= .80)

  • Hours per week: Volunteer work

    (None=1, <1=2, 1-2=3, 3+=4)

  • Performed volunteer work in the past year

    (Frequently, Occasionally, None)


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2004 Volunteerism Through Your Job

  • 1994 variables Significance

    • Socioeconomic Status +++

    • High School GPA +++

    • Volunteering ++

    • Frequency of discussing religion +++

    • Value: Helping others in difficulty ++

  • 1998 variables Significance

    • Volunteering while in college +++

    • Ethnic studies course +++

    • Attd racial/cultural awareness wkshp +

    • Level of cross-racial interaction +++

    • Internship Program +

    • Fraternity/Sorority ---


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Civic Engagement: ( Through Your Jobα=.75)

  • Worked on a community project w/ a govt agency/prog

  • Played a leadership role in improving your community

  • Used on-line communication w/ family & friends to social and political awareness

  • Worked w/ others to solve a problem in the community where you live

    (Never=1, Once or twice=2, Occasionally=3, Frequently=4)


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Civic Engagement Through Your Job

  • 1994 variables Significance

    • Political views +++

    • Volunteering +++

    • Frequency of discussing politics +++

    • Frequency of part in org demos/protests +++

    • Self-rating: Understanding of others +

  • 1998 variables Significance

    • Ethnic studies course +++

    • Attd racial/cultural awareness wkshp +++

    • Level of cross-racial interaction +

    • Women’s studies course +++

    • Leadership Training +

    • Student Government ++

    • Fraternity/Sorority ---

    • Faculty Support: Research +++


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Political Activism ( Through Your Jobα=.81)

  • Donated money: Political candidate/cause

  • Gave opinion: Contact/visit public official

  • Worked w/ political group/official

  • Displayed Button/Sticker/Sign

  • Door to Door canvassing

    (Never=1, Once or twice=2, Occasionally=3, Frequently=4)

  • Part in Protests and Demonstrations

  • Worked in a local, state, natl political campaign

    (Never=1, Occasionally=2, Frequently=1)


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Political Activism Through Your Job

  • 1994 variables Significance

    • Political views +++

    • Volunteering ++

    • Frequency of discussing politics +++

    • Frequency of discussing religion ++

  • 1998 variables Significance

    • Attd racial/cultural awareness wkshp +++

    • Level of cross-racial interaction ++

    • Student Government ++

    • Fraternity/Sorority -


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Consumer Activism Through Your Job(α=.83)

  • Not bought something b/c of the values of the company (since leaving college)

    (Never=1, Once or twice=2, Occasionally=3, Frequently=4)

  • Bought something b/c of the values of the company (since leaving college)

    (Never=1, Once or twice=2, Occasionally=3, Frequently=4)


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Consumer Activism: Outcomes Through Your Job

  • 1994 variables Significance

    • SAT composite +++

    • Political views +++

    • Volunteering +++

    • Self-rating: Intellectual Self-confidence ++

  • 1998 variables Significance

    • Ethnic studies course +++

    • Attd racial/cultural awareness wkshp +++

    • Level of cross-racial interaction +

    • Fraternity/Sorority


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VISIT US ON THE WEB Through Your Job

HERI:

http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/heri

Understanding The Effects of Service Learning

(The Atlantic Project):

http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/heri/understanding_service_learning.html

Lori Vogelgesang, Project Director: [email protected]

Kim Misa, Research Analyst: [email protected]

Jodi Anderson, Research Analyst: [email protected]


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