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Cognition 7A – Memory 7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Cognition 7A – Memory 7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language. Memory. Memory - the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. Examples:. The Memory Process. Three step process….

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Cognition 7A – Memory 7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language

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Cognition

7A – Memory

7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language


Memory

Memory - the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.

Examples:


The Memory Process

Three step process….

  • Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system.

    • Getting the info into the brain

    • Example:

  • Storage: The retention of encoded material over time.

    • Retaining the info

    • Example:

  • Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.

    • Getting the info back out

    • Example:


4 Memory Models

  • Information Processing Model

  • Atkinson-Shiffrin 3 stage model

  • Modified Atkinson-Shiffrin

  • Connectivism Model


Information Processing Model of Memory

  • Information Processing Model –

    • Simplified Memory Model

      • Encoding –

      • Storage –

      • Retrieval –

    • Analogous to a computer


Atkinson and Shiffrin’s 3 Step Model of Memory

  • Sensory memory – brief recording of sensory information

    • Example:

  • Short-term memory – memory that holds few items briefly before info is forgotten

    • Example

  • Long –term memory – relatively permanent and limitless storage of memory.

    • Example


Sensory Memory

  • Sensory Memory - A split second holding tank for ALL sensory information

  • Examples:.

    • Iconic Memory –

    • Echoic Memory –


Short Term Memory

  • Short –term memory – memory that holds a few items briefly (7 digits +/-2) until it is forgotten or stored

Short Term Memory Activity


Long Term Memory

  • Long-term memory - Unlimited storehouse of knowledge, skills and experiences.

  • Examples:


Modified Atkinson – Shiffrin (3 Stage) Model

  • Working Memory –conscious, active processing of auditory and visual-spatial info. and info from long term memory

  • Our memory sketchpad

  • Example –


Modified Three-stage Model of Memory


Connectionism Model of Memory

  • Connectionism – theory that states that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections between neurons

    • Many neurons may work together to process a single memory


How We Encode

2 Types of Encoding

  • Automatically Processing

    • Automatic

    • Parallel

  • Effortful processing

    • Rehearsal


Encoding - Automatic Processing

Automatic Processing - unconscious encoding of incidental information

  • Examples:

  • Time –

  • space –

  • Frequency –

  • well learned info –


Automatic Processing

  • Parallel Processing – processing of many things simultaneously

    • Example:


Encoding – Effortful Processing

  • Effortful Processing –encoding that requires conscious effort and attention

    • Example:

  • Rehearsal – conscious repetition of info to encode it for storage

    • Example:


Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve

  • Ebbinghaus Curve - The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning

  • Overlearning –


Effortful Processing

  • Spacing effect – distributed study is better for long-term recall than massed study (cramming)

    • DO NOT CRAM!!!!!!!!!!!!

    • Example:

  • Testing effect – repeated quizzing or testing improves retention

    • Example:


Encoding Information

  • Serial Positioning Effect – we tend to remember the first and last items on a list

    • Primacy Effect – remember items at the beginning of a list

      • Example:

    • Recency Effect – remembering items at the end of a list (most recent

      • Example:

    • Rostorff effect – remembering unique items on a list

      • Example:


Encoding Exercise

What We Encode…

  • Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture/visual images.

    Example –

    2. Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.

    Example:

    3. Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning.

    Example:


Encoding Exercise

Visual Encoding

  • Imagery – visual images help us remember concrete words (aided by semantic encoding)

    Example:

  • Rosy Retrospection – recalling high points, forgetting theworst

    • Example:


Encoding Exercise

Mneumonics

  • Mnemonic Devices – any memory aid that uses visual images and organizational devices

    • EXAMPLES:

      • Peg word system – memorizing a jingle and using imagery to associate items with the jingle

        Example:

        2. Method of Loci – use visual information with familiar objects on a path to recall info on a list

        • Example:


Encoding Exercise

Mneumonics

3. Hierarchies – broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts

  • Example:

    4. Chunking- Organizing items into familiar, manageable units (acronyms)

  • Example:

Every Good Boy Does Fine

1-800-IBM-HELP


Acoustic Encoding

  • Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.

    • Examples:


Semantic Encoding

  • Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning.

    • Examples:

      • Self Reference Effect – the tendency to remember information that is “relevant to me” compared to less personally relevant information

        • Example:


Storage

Types of Memory

  • Sensory Memory

    • Iconic

    • Echoic

  • Working Memory/Short-term

  • Long-Term Memory

    • Implicit Memory/Procedural Memory

      • Conditioned Memories

    • Explicit Memory

      • Episodic Memory

      • Semantic Memory

      • Flashbulb Memories

      • Prospective memory


Sensory Memory

  • Sperling’s memory experiment

    • Momentary photographic memory

      • After flashing an image, participants had a momentary mental image of all 9 letters

  • Iconic memory – photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

    • Examples:


Sensory Memory

  • Echoic memory – auditory memory lasting no more than a 3-4 seconds (mind’s echo chamber)

    • Example:


Working/Short-Term Memory

  • Duration – Brief (30 sec or less) without active processing

  • Capacity - Limited

  • The list of magic sevens


Long-Term Memory

  • Duration –

  • Capacity -


Types of Long Term Memory

  • Implicit Memory/Procedural Memory

    • Conditioned Memories

  • Explicit Memory

    • Episodic Memory

    • Semantic Memory

    • Flashbulb Memories


Types of Long-Term Memory


Implicit Memories

  • Implicit/Procedural Memories – without conscious recall

    • Examples:

  • Conditioned Memories – memories from conditioned learning

    • Example:


Explicit Memories

  • Explicit Memories – memories of facts and experiences, consciously recalled

    • Processed by the

      Example:

    • Infantile amnesia– can’t remember events before age 3


Explicit Memories

  • Episodic Memories- memories of autobiographical events, situations, and experiences

    • Example:

  • Semantic Memories – memory of words, meanings, and understandings

    • Example:


Explicit Memories

  • FlashbulbMemories – clear moment of a emotionally significant event

    • Example:

  • Prospective Memory – remembering to perform a planned action

    • Example:


Storing Memories

Memory trace – memory is distributed across groups of neurons

Long Term-Potentiation – Increases in synaptic firing potential of a neuron by increasing the number of receptors on the receiving neuron.

  • Memory boosting drugs

    • CREB –

    • Glutamate –


Amnesia

  • Amnesia – loss of memory

    • Retrograde Amnesia – inability to remember past events

      • Example

    • Anterograde Amnesia – inability to create new memories

      • Examples:


Retrieval

Recognition - you must identify the target from possible targets

Example:

  • Recall - you must retrieve the information from your memory

  • Example:


Ways to help you retrieve info

  • Relearning – learning material for the second time, saves time.

    • Example:

  • Retrieval Cues – anchor points used to access target info for retrieval later

    • Example:

  • Priming – unconscious activation of associations in memory

    • Example:


The Context Matters!!!

  • Mood Congruent Memory – recalling memories consistent with current mood

    • Example:

  • State Dependent Memory –learning that takes place in one physiological "state" is generally better remembered later in a similar physiological state

    • Example:


Context Matters

  • Context-dependent memory - memory is more easily recalled if you are in the same setting that learning took place

    • Example:

  • Déjà vu – eerie sense that you’ve experienced something before

    • Example:


Forgetting

  • Encoding Failures

  • Storage Decay

  • Retrieval Failures


Forgetting

  • Schacter’s sevens sins of memory

    • Sins of Forgetting

    • Sins of distortion

    • Sin of intrusion


Encoding Failure

Example –

What should you do to prevent an encoding failure?


Storage Decay

Ebbinghaus Curve

Apply the Ebbinghaus curve to Psych Class


Retrieval Failure


Retrieval Failures

  • Retroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information.

    • Example:

  • Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information.

    • Example:

  • PORN

  • Positive Transfer – old info helps you learn new info

    • Example:

  • Tip of the tongue phenomenon -


Motivated Forgetting

  • Motivated Forgetting – revising past memories

  • Repression – (Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory)

  • A defense mechanism that banishes painful memories from consciousness to minimize anxiety

    • Example:


Constructive Memory

  • Constructed memory (Loftus) - a created memory, altered when encoded or retrieved.

    • Misinformation effect

    • Imagination effect

    • Source amnesia


Constructive Memory

  • Misinformation Effect – incorporating misleading info into a memory

    Example:

  • Imagination Effect/Inflation – imagining nonexistent actions and events can create false memories

    Example:

  • Source Amnesia – retaining the memory of an event, but not the source

    Example:


Discerning True and False Memories

  • Memory studies – real vs. false

  • Eye witness testimony


Children’s Eyewitness Recall

  • Children’s memories of abuse

    • Suggestibility


Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse?

  • Areas of agreement


Improving Memory Techniques


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