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Cognition 7A – Memory 7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Cognition 7A – Memory 7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language. Memory. Memory - the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. Examples:. The Memory Process. Three step process….

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Cognition 7A – Memory 7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language

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Cognition 7a memory 7b thinking problems solving creativity and language

Cognition

7A – Memory

7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language


Memory

Memory

Memory - the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.

Examples:


The memory process

The Memory Process

Three step process….

  • Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system.

    • Getting the info into the brain

    • Example:

  • Storage: The retention of encoded material over time.

    • Retaining the info

    • Example:

  • Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.

    • Getting the info back out

    • Example:


4 memory models

4 Memory Models

  • Information Processing Model

  • Atkinson-Shiffrin 3 stage model

  • Modified Atkinson-Shiffrin

  • Connectivism Model


Information processing model of memory

Information Processing Model of Memory

  • Information Processing Model –

    • Simplified Memory Model

      • Encoding –

      • Storage –

      • Retrieval –

    • Analogous to a computer


Atkinson and shiffrin s 3 step model of memory

Atkinson and Shiffrin’s 3 Step Model of Memory

  • Sensory memory – brief recording of sensory information

    • Example:

  • Short-term memory – memory that holds few items briefly before info is forgotten

    • Example

  • Long –term memory – relatively permanent and limitless storage of memory.

    • Example


Sensory memory

Sensory Memory

  • Sensory Memory - A split second holding tank for ALL sensory information

  • Examples:.

    • Iconic Memory –

    • Echoic Memory –


Short term memory

Short Term Memory

  • Short –term memory – memory that holds a few items briefly (7 digits +/-2) until it is forgotten or stored

Short Term Memory Activity


Long term memory

Long Term Memory

  • Long-term memory - Unlimited storehouse of knowledge, skills and experiences.

  • Examples:


Modified atkinson shiffrin 3 stage model

Modified Atkinson – Shiffrin (3 Stage) Model

  • Working Memory –conscious, active processing of auditory and visual-spatial info. and info from long term memory

  • Our memory sketchpad

  • Example –


Cognition 7a memory 7b thinking problems solving creativity and language

Modified Three-stage Model of Memory


Connectionism model of memory

Connectionism Model of Memory

  • Connectionism – theory that states that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections between neurons

    • Many neurons may work together to process a single memory


How we encode

How We Encode

2 Types of Encoding

  • Automatically Processing

    • Automatic

    • Parallel

  • Effortful processing

    • Rehearsal


Encoding automatic processing

Encoding - Automatic Processing

Automatic Processing - unconscious encoding of incidental information

  • Examples:

  • Time –

  • space –

  • Frequency –

  • well learned info –


Automatic processing

Automatic Processing

  • Parallel Processing – processing of many things simultaneously

    • Example:


Encoding effortful processing

Encoding – Effortful Processing

  • Effortful Processing –encoding that requires conscious effort and attention

    • Example:

  • Rehearsal – conscious repetition of info to encode it for storage

    • Example:


Ebbinghaus s forgetting curve

Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve

  • Ebbinghaus Curve - The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning

  • Overlearning –


Effortful processing

Effortful Processing

  • Spacing effect – distributed study is better for long-term recall than massed study (cramming)

    • DO NOT CRAM!!!!!!!!!!!!

    • Example:

  • Testing effect – repeated quizzing or testing improves retention

    • Example:


Encoding information

Encoding Information

  • Serial Positioning Effect – we tend to remember the first and last items on a list

    • Primacy Effect – remember items at the beginning of a list

      • Example:

    • Recency Effect – remembering items at the end of a list (most recent

      • Example:

    • Rostorff effect – remembering unique items on a list

      • Example:


What we encode

Encoding Exercise

What We Encode…

  • Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture/visual images.

    Example –

    2. Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.

    Example:

    3. Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning.

    Example:


Visual encoding

Encoding Exercise

Visual Encoding

  • Imagery – visual images help us remember concrete words (aided by semantic encoding)

    Example:

  • Rosy Retrospection – recalling high points, forgetting theworst

    • Example:


Mneumonics

Encoding Exercise

Mneumonics

  • Mnemonic Devices – any memory aid that uses visual images and organizational devices

    • EXAMPLES:

      • Peg word system – memorizing a jingle and using imagery to associate items with the jingle

        Example:

        2. Method of Loci – use visual information with familiar objects on a path to recall info on a list

        • Example:


Mneumonics1

Encoding Exercise

Mneumonics

3. Hierarchies – broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts

  • Example:

    4. Chunking- Organizing items into familiar, manageable units (acronyms)

  • Example:

Every Good Boy Does Fine

1-800-IBM-HELP


Cognition 7a memory 7b thinking problems solving creativity and language

Acoustic Encoding

  • Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.

    • Examples:


Semantic encoding

Semantic Encoding

  • Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning.

    • Examples:

      • Self Reference Effect – the tendency to remember information that is “relevant to me” compared to less personally relevant information

        • Example:


Storage

Storage

Types of Memory

  • Sensory Memory

    • Iconic

    • Echoic

  • Working Memory/Short-term

  • Long-Term Memory

    • Implicit Memory/Procedural Memory

      • Conditioned Memories

    • Explicit Memory

      • Episodic Memory

      • Semantic Memory

      • Flashbulb Memories

      • Prospective memory


Sensory memory1

Sensory Memory

  • Sperling’s memory experiment

    • Momentary photographic memory

      • After flashing an image, participants had a momentary mental image of all 9 letters

  • Iconic memory – photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

    • Examples:


Sensory memory2

Sensory Memory

  • Echoic memory – auditory memory lasting no more than a 3-4 seconds (mind’s echo chamber)

    • Example:


Working short term memory

Working/Short-Term Memory

  • Duration – Brief (30 sec or less) without active processing

  • Capacity - Limited

  • The list of magic sevens


Long term memory1

Long-Term Memory

  • Duration –

  • Capacity -


Types of long term memory

Types of Long Term Memory

  • Implicit Memory/Procedural Memory

    • Conditioned Memories

  • Explicit Memory

    • Episodic Memory

    • Semantic Memory

    • Flashbulb Memories


Cognition 7a memory 7b thinking problems solving creativity and language

Types of Long-Term Memory


Implicit memories

Implicit Memories

  • Implicit/Procedural Memories – without conscious recall

    • Examples:

  • Conditioned Memories – memories from conditioned learning

    • Example:


Explicit memories

Explicit Memories

  • Explicit Memories – memories of facts and experiences, consciously recalled

    • Processed by the

      Example:

    • Infantile amnesia– can’t remember events before age 3


Explicit memories1

Explicit Memories

  • Episodic Memories- memories of autobiographical events, situations, and experiences

    • Example:

  • Semantic Memories – memory of words, meanings, and understandings

    • Example:


Explicit memories2

Explicit Memories

  • FlashbulbMemories – clear moment of a emotionally significant event

    • Example:

  • Prospective Memory – remembering to perform a planned action

    • Example:


Storing memories

Storing Memories

Memory trace – memory is distributed across groups of neurons

Long Term-Potentiation – Increases in synaptic firing potential of a neuron by increasing the number of receptors on the receiving neuron.

  • Memory boosting drugs

    • CREB –

    • Glutamate –


Amnesia

Amnesia

  • Amnesia – loss of memory

    • Retrograde Amnesia – inability to remember past events

      • Example

    • Anterograde Amnesia – inability to create new memories

      • Examples:


Retrieval

Retrieval

Recognition - you must identify the target from possible targets

Example:

  • Recall - you must retrieve the information from your memory

  • Example:


Ways to help you retrieve info

Ways to help you retrieve info

  • Relearning – learning material for the second time, saves time.

    • Example:

  • Retrieval Cues – anchor points used to access target info for retrieval later

    • Example:

  • Priming – unconscious activation of associations in memory

    • Example:


The context matters

The Context Matters!!!

  • Mood Congruent Memory – recalling memories consistent with current mood

    • Example:

  • State Dependent Memory –learning that takes place in one physiological "state" is generally better remembered later in a similar physiological state

    • Example:


Context matters

Context Matters

  • Context-dependent memory - memory is more easily recalled if you are in the same setting that learning took place

    • Example:

  • Déjà vu – eerie sense that you’ve experienced something before

    • Example:


Forgetting

Forgetting

  • Encoding Failures

  • Storage Decay

  • Retrieval Failures


Forgetting1

Forgetting

  • Schacter’s sevens sins of memory

    • Sins of Forgetting

    • Sins of distortion

    • Sin of intrusion


Encoding failure

Encoding Failure

Example –

What should you do to prevent an encoding failure?


Cognition 7a memory 7b thinking problems solving creativity and language

Storage Decay

Ebbinghaus Curve

Apply the Ebbinghaus curve to Psych Class


Retrieval failure

Retrieval Failure


Retrieval failures

Retrieval Failures

  • Retroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information.

    • Example:

  • Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information.

    • Example:

  • PORN

  • Positive Transfer – old info helps you learn new info

    • Example:

  • Tip of the tongue phenomenon -


Motivated forgetting

Motivated Forgetting

  • Motivated Forgetting – revising past memories

  • Repression – (Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory)

  • A defense mechanism that banishes painful memories from consciousness to minimize anxiety

    • Example:


Constructive memory

Constructive Memory

  • Constructed memory (Loftus) - a created memory, altered when encoded or retrieved.

    • Misinformation effect

    • Imagination effect

    • Source amnesia


Constructive memory1

Constructive Memory

  • Misinformation Effect – incorporating misleading info into a memory

    Example:

  • Imagination Effect/Inflation – imagining nonexistent actions and events can create false memories

    Example:

  • Source Amnesia – retaining the memory of an event, but not the source

    Example:


Discerning true and false memories

Discerning True and False Memories

  • Memory studies – real vs. false

  • Eye witness testimony


Children s eyewitness recall

Children’s Eyewitness Recall

  • Children’s memories of abuse

    • Suggestibility


Repressed or constructed memories of abuse

Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse?

  • Areas of agreement


Improving memory techniques

Improving Memory Techniques


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