7A: Memory. 12/2/13. Let’s talk about memory. What do you already know? What is memory? What is long-term memory? What is short-term memory? What helps you remember? Demos. Memory. The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
Information Processing Model
Long Term Memory
All the rest
Short Term Memory
Memories for personal events in a specific time and place
Memory for general facts and concepts not linked to a specific time
Motor skills and habits
Learned emotional responses to various stimuli
We cannot remember what we do not encode.
Poor durability of stored memories leads to their decay. Ebbinghaus showed this with his forgetting curve.
Bahrick (1984) showed a similar pattern of forgetting and retaining over 50 years.
Andrew Holbrooke/ Corbis
Although the information is retained in the memory store, it cannot be accessed.
Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) is a retrieval failure phenomenon. Given a cue (What makes blood cells red?) the subject says the word begins with an H (hemoglobin).
Motivated Forgetting:People unknowingly revise their memories.
Repression:Adefense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
Forgetting can occur at any memory stage. We filter, alter, or lose much information during these stages.