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2007 ITRS Emerging Research Materials April 25, 2007. Michael Garner – Intel Daniel Herr – SRC. 2006/7 ERM Participants. Bob Allen IBM Yuji Awano Fujitsu Daniel-Camille Bensahel STM Chuck Black BNL Ageeth Bol IBM

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2007 ITRS Emerging Research Materials April 25, 2007

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2007 itrs emerging research materials april 25 2007

2007 ITRSEmerging Research MaterialsApril 25, 2007

Michael Garner – Intel

Daniel Herr –SRC

2006 7 erm participants

2006/7 ERM Participants

Bob Allen IBM

Yuji Awano Fujitsu

Daniel-Camille Bensahel STM

Chuck Black BNL

Ageeth Bol IBM

George BourianoffIntel

Alex BratkovskiHP

William Butler U. of Alabama

John Carruthers Port. State Univ.

Zhihong ChenIBM

U-In Chung Samsung

Rinn CleavelinTI

Hongjie Dai Stanford Univ.

Jean DijonLETI

Joe DeSimone UNC

Satoshi FujimuraTOK

Michael Garner Intel

Emmanuel Giannelis Cornell


Joe GordonIBM

Jim HannonIBM

Craig Hawker UCSB

Rudi Hendel AMAT

Susan Holl Spansion

Dan HerrSRC

Jim HutchbySRC

Antoine Kahn Princeton Univ.

Sergie Kalinin ORNL

Ted KaminsHP

Masashi Kawasaki Tohoku Univ.

Roger Lake U.C. Riverside

Steve KnightNIST

Gertjan Koster Stanford Univ.

Louis Lome IDA Cons.

Francois MartinLETI

Andrew Millis Columbia Univ.

Bob MillerIBM

Chris MurrayIBM

Raravikar NachiketIntel

Paul Nealey U. Wisc.


Dmitri NikonovIntel

Chris Ober Cornell Univ.

Ramamoorthy Ramesh U.C.


Mark Reed Yale Univ.

Dave Roberts Air Products

Francis RossIBM

Sadasivan ShankarIntel

Lars SamuelsonLund


Mitusru SatoTOK

John Henry ScottNIST

Atsushi ShiotaJSR

Kaushal K. SinghAMAT

Susanne StemmerUCSB

Curt RichterNIST

Shinichi Tagaki U of Tokyo

Koki TamuraTOK

Evgeny Tsymbal U. of Nebraska

Emanuel TutucIBM

John UngurisNIST

Vijay WakharkarIntel

Kang WangUCLA

Rainer Waser Aacken Univ.

C.P. Wong Ga Tech. Univ.

H.S. Philip Wong Stanford


Hiroshi YamaguchiNTT

Toru Yamaguchi NTT

In Kyeong Yoo Samsung

Victor ZhirnovSRC

Emerging research materials

Emerging Research Materials

  • Develop ERM Chapter (2007)

    • Goal: Identify critical ERM technical and timing requirements

    • Consolidated Materials Research Requirements for:

      • University & Gov’t Researchers (Chemist, Materials Scientist, etc)

      • Industry Researchers

        • Semiconductor

        • Chemical, Material, & Equipment Suppliers

    • Align ERM Requirement to TWG Needs

    • Workshops to Assess ERM Properties & Research Directions

Erm matrix

ERM Matrix

Detailed TWG Requirements

General TWG Interest to Date

No TWG Interest to Date

Erm scope

ERM Scope

  • Cross Cutting Materials designed to address specific roadmap issues

  • Low Dimensional Nanomaterials

  • Macromolecules

  • Directed Self Assembly

  • Strongly Correlated Electron State Materials

  • Hetero-structures & interfaces

  • Spin Materials

  • Environment Safety & Health

  • Identify Research Needs For:

    • Synthesis

    • Metrology

    • Modeling

Emerging research materials workshop timetable

Emerging Research Materials Workshop Timetable

  • Low Dimensional NanomaterialsCompleted

    • Devices, Interconnect, Package, FEP, Litho

  • Macromolecules Completed

    • Litho, FEP, Packages, Devices

  • Strongly Correlated Electron State Materials

    • ERDCompleted

  • Directed Self Assembly Completed

    • Litho, Interconnects, FEP, ERD

  • ESH (Feb’07) Completed

  • Hetero-structures & Interfaces Completed

    • ERD, Interconnects, FEP, Package

  • Ferromagnetic Semiconductors (May ’07)

Emerging research devices

Emerging Research Devices

Device StateMaterials

  • 1D Charge State (Low Dimensional)

  • Molecular State (Macromolecule)

  • Spin State (Spin Materials, SCEM)

  • Polarization State(Heterointerfaces)

  • Resistance State(Heterointerfaces)

  • Phase State (SCEM & Heterointerfaces)

SCEM= Strongly Correlated Electron State Materials

All Devices have critical interface requirements

1d charge state materials

Carbon Nanotube FET

1D Charge State Materials

  • Control of doping is a challenge for both nanotubes & nanowires

Source Intel

Atomically smooth


(L. Samuelson, Lund Univ.)

  • Nanotube Challenges

  • Control of Location &

  • Orientation

  • Control of Bandgap

  • Contact Resistance

Group IV & III-V

Grow in 111 Orientation

Catalyst determines location

(T. Kamins, el. Al., HP)

Molecular state

Molecular State

  • Molecular Transport shows Tunneling & Hopping vs band transport

  • Metal-molecule potential barrier is high & the contact is very sensitive to hybridization

    • High fields in the barrier may dominate potential molecular conduction

  • Molecule & CNT contacts appear to have low transport barriers

    • p electrons in plane have low barrier to transport

  • Contact resistance in Molecules & Nanotubes increases with sigma bonding character; i.e. s bonding character; and p orbital misalignment for non-tunneling systems

  • Clean metal interfaces appear to form a dipole layer on organic materials

Spin state

Spin State

Overlapping Bound Magnetic Polarons, Coey, Nature 2005

Room temperature



(T curie)

Carrier mediated exchange

  • Need an accepted methodology for validating carrier mediated exchange

    • Gated test structures

  • Transport across interfaces depends on band symmetry

    • Physical disruption of symmetry can degrade transport

    • Consider size and strain effects on spin orbital splitting

    • Assess candidate material families, such as chalcopyrites

Need Room Temp FM Semiconductor

2007 itrs emerging research materials april 25 2007

Phase State & Heterostructures



  • Materials exhibit complex phase relationships

    • Structure, Strain, Spin, Charge, Orbital Ordering

  • Goal: Determine whether complex phases and coupled dynamic and static properties have any potential to enable alternate state logic devices

Can these materials enable new device functions?

2007 itrs emerging research materials april 25 2007





2D Electron Gas at SrTiO3-LaAlO3 Interface

RHEED excited Cathodoluminescence

Critical thickness

J. Mannhart et. al. 2006

Augsburg Univ.

Oxygen Vacancies

D. Winkler, et. al. 2005

  • Candidate materials include complex transition metal oxides

Early results must be understood & validated



Macromolecular Architectures

Resist: Unique Properties

  • Immersion: Low leaching & low surface energy

  • EUV: Low outgassing, high speed & flare tolerant

    Imprint Materials

  • Low viscosity

  • Easy Release

    Directed Self Assembly

  • Density, Size, Defects, LER, Shapes, & Alignment

Molecular Glass & PAGS

R. Allen, IBM

R. Allen, IBM

Polymer Design

Ober, Cornell


Di-block Copolymer self assembly

P. Nealey, U. Wisc.

Potential fep applications

Potential FEP Applications

For Extreme CMOS

  • Directed Self Assembly for Deterministic Dopant Placement

  • Self Assembly for Selective Etch

  • Macromolecules for Selective Etch & Cleaning

Potential interconnect applications

Potential Interconnect Applications


  • Multi & single walled CNT

  • Metal nanowires

  • Higher density

  • Contact Resistance

  • Adhesion


  • Metallic CNTs

  • Metallic Nanowires

  • Alignment

  • Contact Resistance

Y. Awano, Fujitsu

H. Dai,

Stanford Univ.

E-Field Align100Volts

Quartz Crystal Step Alignment


4 Die Stack

4 Die Stack with Large Overhang


  • Package Electrical & Thermo-Mechanical

  • Substrate: Nanoparticles, Macromolecules

  • Polymers & Molding Compound: Nanoparticles & macromolecules

  • Adhesives: Macromolecules, nanoparticles

  • Chip Interconnect: Nanotubes & nanosolders

High Density Power Delivery Capacitors

Dielectrics: High K

Self Assembly

Interconnects: Nanotubes or Nanowires

2007 itrs emerging research materials april 25 2007


  • Researchers need to perform hazard & risk assessment on new materials

    • Establish handling practiced based on risk levels

  • Hierarchy of assessment based on maturity of materials application & hazard research

  • Integrate ESH factors into materials design

Metrology modeling

Metrology & Modeling

  • Metrology

    • Low dimensional material properties (Mapping)

    • Correlation of nanostructure to macro properties

    • Imbedded interface characterization

    • Nanostructure characterization of low z materials

  • Modeling Materials & Interfaces

    • Deterministic dopant placement effect on electrical properties

    • Nanomaterial synthesis & properties

    • Self assembled materials structures & their properties & defects

    • Heterointerface electronic & spin transport properties & 2D effects

  • Metrology & modeling must be able characterize & predict performance & reliability

Difficult challenges

Difficult Challenges

  • Characterization of the nanostructure to property correlation

  • Control of Nanostructure & Properties

  • Self Assembly control of structure, defect, registration

  • Identifying critical properties for alternate state devices & their interfaces

  • Characterizing electronic & spin properties of embedded interfaces/matrixes

  • Assessment of potential ESH hazards and risk of ERM



  • Aligning Requirements with TWGs

  • Developing Tables

  • Most Workshops Completed

  • Scope refined based on TWG applications

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