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Controlling the Internal Environment II: Salt and water balance PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Controlling the Internal Environment II: Salt and water balance. Ammonia toxicity Urea Uric acid Osmoconformer Osmoregulator Passive transport Facilitated diffusion Active transport Uniport Antiport symport. Osmoregulation by an aquatic invertebrate Osmoregulation in marine fish

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Controlling the Internal Environment II: Salt and water balance

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Controlling the internal environment ii salt and water balance l.jpg

Controlling the Internal Environment II: Salt and water balance


Keywords reading p 879 884 l.jpg

Ammonia toxicity

Urea

Uric acid

Osmoconformer

Osmoregulator

Passive transport

Facilitated diffusion

Active transport

Uniport

Antiport

symport

Osmoregulation by an aquatic invertebrate

Osmoregulation in marine fish

Osmoregulation in freshwater fish

Water loss on land

Permeable and impermeable body surfaces

Kangaroo rate water balance

anhydrobiosis

Keywords (reading p. 879-884)


The internal environment l.jpg

The internal environment

  • In most animals, the majority of cells are bathed by internal fluids rather than the environment

  • This is advantageous since there can be control of substrates needed for metabolism


Consider the origin of life started out as enzymes in the primordial sea l.jpg

Consider the origin of life: started out as enzymes in the primordial sea


Rates of reactions were determined by the concentrations of substrates in the environment l.jpg

Rates of reactions were determined by the concentrations of substrates in the environment


The first proto organism enclosed it s enzymes inside a membrane and became a cell l.jpg

The first proto-organism enclosed it’s enzymes inside a membrane and became a cell


Control of substrate concentration products do not diffuse away l.jpg

Control of substrate concentrationProducts do not diffuse away


Slide8 l.jpg

  • Good because reactions will work better and you don’t lose the products

  • Good because you can keep out molecules that you don’t want

  • Bad because there can be osmotic problems

  • Bad because hazardous by products can stay in the cell

Hazardous products


Therefore the internal chemical environment is controlled l.jpg

Therefore the internal chemical environment is controlled

  • A. Avoiding buildup of toxic chemicals

    • Dealing with ammonia

  • B. Osmoregulation - controlling internal solutes


A avoiding buildup of toxic chemicals l.jpg

A. Avoiding buildup of toxic chemicals


Hazardous products l.jpg

Hazardous products

  • A major source of hazardous products is the production of nitrogenous wastes

  • Ammonia (NH3) is a small and very toxic molecule that is normal product of protein and amino acid breakdown

  • If you are an aquatic organism, ammonia can readily diffuse out of the body and this is not a problem


Ammonia toxicity is a problem for terrestrial animals l.jpg

Ammonia toxicity is a problem for terrestrial animals

  • Ammonia does not readily diffuse away into the air.

  • The strategy of terrestrial animals is to detoxify it then get rid of (excrete) it.


Ammonia can be converted to urea which is 100 000 times less toxic l.jpg

Ammonia can be converted to urea which is 100,000 times less toxic

  • Mammals, most amphibians, sharks, some body fishes


The drawback of using urea l.jpg

The drawback of using urea

  • Takes energy to synthesize

  • Still need to use water to “flush it out”


Some animals cannot afford to use water to excrete urea l.jpg

Some animals cannot afford to use water to excrete urea

  • These animals use excrete uric acid instead


Uric acid l.jpg

Uric acid

  • Since uric acid is not very soluble in water, it can be excreted as a paste.

  • Less water is lost

  • Disadvantages:

    • Even more costly to synthesize.

    • Loss of carbon


Who uses uric acid l.jpg

Who uses uric acid?

  • Birds, insects, many reptiles, land snails

  • Related to water use, but also reproduction

  • Eggs - N wastes from embryo would accumulate around it if ammonia or urea are used. Uric acid precipitates out.


B osmoregulation controlling internal solutes l.jpg

B. Osmoregulation - controlling internal solutes


Osmolarity l.jpg

Osmolarity

  • Osmolarity = # of solutes per volume solution

  • Often expressed in moles (6.02 x 1023 atoms/molecules) per liter.

  • 1 mole of glucose = 1 mole of solute

  • 1 mole of NaCl = 2 moles of solute


Osmotic problems l.jpg

Osmotic problems

  • Humans have internal solute concentration (osmolarity) of 300 milliosmoles per liter (mosm/L)

  • The ocean is 1000 mosm/L


What would happen if your body surface is water permeable and you fall into the sea l.jpg

Keep your internal concentrations the same as the environment (osmoconformer)

Regulate your internal concentrations (osmoregulator)

What would happen if your body surface is water permeable and you fall into the sea

1000 mosm/L

300 mosm/L


Jellyfish in the ocean l.jpg

Jellyfish in the ocean

  • Keep solutes at 1000 mosm/L no water loss or gain.

  • A relatively simple solution

1000 mosm/L

1000 mosm/L

jellyfish


Life in freshwater hydra living in a pond l.jpg

Life in freshwater - hydra living in a pond

  • Can the same strategy of matching the environmental osmolarity be used?

0 mosm/L

0 mosm/L

Green hydra


Hydra living in a pond l.jpg

Hydra living in a pond

  • If external osmolarity is very low like 0 mosm/L, hydra cannot maintain an internal osmolarity of 0 mosm/L

  • Why is this?

  • Consequently freshwater animals will most likely have a higher osmolarity than the environment.


What happens to freshwater organisms l.jpg

What happens to freshwater organisms?

  • Water from the environment is continually entering tissues.

  • The diffusion gradient favors loss of solutes

  • Therefore there is a need to regulate solutes and water


Two ways to deal with osmotic problems l.jpg

Two ways to deal with osmotic problems

  • Keep your internal concentrations the same as the environment (osmoconformer)

  • Regulate your internal concentrations (osmoregulator)


Solute regulation l.jpg

Solute regulation

  • Transport solutes across the body surface

    • Note: even in the jellyfish example, there is ion regulation. Although the internal fluids have the same osmolarity as seawater, they do not have the same composition


Ways molecules get across membranes l.jpg

Ways molecules get across membranes


Passive transport diffusion l.jpg

Passive transport: Diffusion

  • Works for lipid soluble molecules and gases

  • No good for most water soluble molecules and ions


Passive transport facilitated diffusion l.jpg

Passive transport: Facilitated diffusion

  • Generally used for ions, larger molecules, non-lipid soluble molecules.

  • Must be a gradient favoring diffusion


Active transport l.jpg

Active transport

  • Works for ions and molecules like glucose or amino acids

  • Can transport against a gradient.

  • Costs energy, usually ATP


In this diagram how might sodium get across the membrane l.jpg

In this diagram, how might sodium get across the membrane?

  • A) diffusion

  • B) active transport

  • C) facilitated diffusion or active transport

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+


In this diagram how might sodium get across the membrane34 l.jpg

In this diagram, how might sodium get across the membrane?

  • A) diffusion

  • B) active transport

  • C) facilitated diffusion or active transport

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+


In this diagram how might sodium get across the membrane35 l.jpg

In this diagram, how might sodium get across the membrane?

  • A) diffusion

  • B) active transport

  • C) facilitated diffusion or active transport

Na+

Na+

Na+

Na+

- - - - - - - - - - - - -

+ + + + + + + + + +

Na+

Na+


In this diagram how might steroids get across the membrane l.jpg

In this diagram, how might steroids get across the membrane?

  • A) diffusion

  • B) active transport

  • C) facilitated diffusion

  • D) all of the above

steroid

steroid

steroid

steroid

steroid


In this diagram how might steroids get across the membrane37 l.jpg

In this diagram, how might steroids get across the membrane?

  • A) diffusion

  • B) active transport

  • C) facilitated diffusion

  • D) all of the above

steroid

steroid

steroid

steroid

steroid

steroid

steroid

steroid

steroid

steroid

steroid

steroid

steroid

steroid

steroid


Types of active transport l.jpg

Types of active transport


What type of active transport is this l.jpg

What type of active transport is this?

  • A) uniport

  • B) symport

  • C) antiport

K+


What type of active transport is this40 l.jpg

What type of active transport is this?

  • A) uniport

  • B) symport

  • C) antiport

K+

Sodium potassium ATPase

Na+


What type of active transport is this41 l.jpg

What type of active transport is this?

Cl-

  • A) uniport

  • B) symport

  • C) antiport

K+


Responses of soft bodied invertebrates to changes in salinity l.jpg

Responses of soft-bodied invertebrates to changes in salinity

  • Marine invertebrates can often be exposed to salinity changes (e.g., tidepool drying out, estuaries)

  • If salts enter the body, pump them out using transporters

  • If salts are leaving body, take them up from the environment using transporters

  • Or just let your internal concentrations follow changes in the environment


Dumping pumping amino acids l.jpg

Dumping/pumping amino acids

  • One way to respond while keeping internal ion concentrations the same is to pump amino acids out.

  • Often used by bivalves living in estuaries

    • Clams, oysters, mussels


Estuary high tide l.jpg

Estuary - high tide

1000 mosm/L

1000 mosm/L

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa


Estuary low tide l.jpg

Estuary - low tide

500 mosm/L

1000 mosm/L

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa


Estuary low tide46 l.jpg

Estuary - low tide

500 mosm/L

500 mosm/L

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa

aa


Advantages of amino acid osmoregulation l.jpg

Advantages of amino acid osmoregulation

  • Changing amino acid concentrations is less disruptive on internal processes (enzyme function).

  • Costs: pumping amino acids (can involve ATP), loss of amino acids (carbon and nitrogen)


Osmoregulation in other aquatic organisms l.jpg

Osmoregulation in other aquatic organisms

  • Example: fishes maintain internal concentration of solutes

  • Body volume does not change

  • Involves energetic cost of active transport

  • In bony fishes this can be 5% of metabolic rate


Marine fishes l.jpg

Marine fishes


Marine fishes50 l.jpg

Marine fishes

  • Problem: lower internal osmolarity than seawater

  • Water will leave body, sea salts will go in

  • Solution: Fish drink large amounts of seawater, then transport out ions (Na+, Cl-) at their gill surface or in urine (Ca++, Mg++, SO4--).


Freshwater fishes l.jpg

Freshwater fishes


Freshwater fishes52 l.jpg

Freshwater fishes

  • The opposite situation: tendency to lose solutes and gain water

  • Solutions: take up salts in food and by active transport across gills

  • Eliminate water via copious dilute urine production


Water balance on land l.jpg

Water balance on land

  • Unlike aquatic animals, terrestrial animals don’t lose or gain water by osmosis

  • However, water loss or solute gain can be a major problem

  • Cells are maintained at around 300 mosm/L

  • Humans die if they lose 12% of their body water


Why not just prohibit water loss l.jpg

Why not just prohibit water loss?

  • Impermeable surfaces: waxy exoskeleton (insects), shells of land snails, thick skin (vertebrates).

  • Not all surfaces can be impermeable because gas exchange must also occur.

  • Evaporation across respiratory surfaces is only one of the two main causes of water loss

    • The other is urine production


Drinking l.jpg

Drinking

  • Replenishes water that is lost

  • Water can also be gained by moist foods

  • What if there is no water to drink?


Desert kangaroo rat l.jpg

Desert kangaroo rat


Desert kangaroo rat does not drink l.jpg

Desert kangaroo rat does not drink

  • Don’t lose much water

    • Special nasal passages

    • Urine doesn’t contain much water

  • Recovers almost all of the water that results from cellular respiration


Slide58 l.jpg

  • Note comparison is relative not absolute

  • Greater proportion of water intake of K rat is from metabolism


Slide59 l.jpg

  • Low proportion of K rat water loss is in urine


Anhydrobiosis tardigrades water bears l.jpg

Anhydrobiosis: Tardigrades (water bears)

  • Can lose 95% of their body water


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