C hapter 3 atomic absorption spectroscopy
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C hapter 3 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. 3.1. Theoretical Concepts 3.2. Atomic Absorption Instrumentation 3.3. Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption 3.4. Control of Analytical Interferences. 3.1. Theoretical Concepts. The Atomic Absorption Process Theoretical Concepts

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C hapter 3 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

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C hapter 3 atomic absorption spectroscopy

Chapter 3 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

3.1. Theoretical Concepts

3.2. Atomic Absorption Instrumentation

3.3. Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption

3.4. Control of Analytical Interferences


3 1 theoretical concepts

3.1. Theoretical Concepts

  • The Atomic Absorption Process

  • Theoretical Concepts

  • Quantitative Analysis

  • Characteristic Concentration

  • Detection Limits


The atomic absorption process

The Atomic Absorption Process


C hapter 3 atomic absorption spectroscopy

Fig3-2 Grotrian diagrams for K

Fig 3-3Grotrian diagrams for Na


2 theoretical concepts integral formula of aas fig 3 4 typical shape of a atomic absorption line

2. Theoretical Concepts⑴Integral Formula of AASFig 3-4 Typical Shape of A Atomic Absorption line


Integral absorption formula by atomic theory

Integral Absorption FormulaBy atomic theory

(3.1)

By Line Shape Function

( the Nature distribute )

(3.2)

The Peak Absorption Coefficient k0 is:

(3.3)


Peak absorption theory by lambert beer s law

⑵ Peak Absorption Theoryby Lambert-Beer’s Law:

(3.4)

(3.5)

(3.6)


C hapter 3 atomic absorption spectroscopy

The Absorbance is:

(3.7)


C hapter 3 atomic absorption spectroscopy

When:

va>> ve,

and

v0a= v0e,

then kv≈k0,


C hapter 3 atomic absorption spectroscopy

(3.8)


C hapter 3 atomic absorption spectroscopy

(3.9)

(3.10)


3 quantitative analysis

3. Quantitative Analysis

(3.10)


4 characteristic concentration

4. Characteristic Concentration

(3.11)


5 detection limit

5. Detection Limit

(3.12)


3 2 atomic absorption instrumentation

3.2. Atomic Absorption Instrumentation


1 photometers for aas

1. Photometers for AAS


1 photometers for aas1

1. Photometers for AAS


A new type photometer for aas

A New Type Photometer for AAS


2 line source hollow cathode lamp

2. line source (Hollow Cathode Lamp )

Fig 3-13


Hollow cathode lamp emission process

Hollow Cathode Lamp Emission Process

Fig 3-14


3 atomizer for aas pre mix burner system

3. Atomizer for AAS (Pre-Mix Burner System)


C hapter 3 atomic absorption spectroscopy

Fig 4-19 Tree Type Burner Head for different Type Flame


4 control of analytical interferences

4. Control of Analytical Interferences

Ionization interference

Matrix interference

Chemical interference

Background interference


Ionization interference

Ionization Interference

Ba → Ba+ + e-

K → K+ + e-


Matrix interference

Matrix Interference


Chemical interference

Chemical Interference


The method of standard additions

The Method Of Standard Additions


Background interference

Background Interference


C hapter 3 atomic absorption spectroscopy

(4.13)

AHCL= Aa+ Ab

(4.14)

AD2=Ab,

(4.15)

Aa = AHCL- AD2


3 3 graphite furnace atomic absorption

3.3. Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption

  • Graphite furnace atomizer components

  • The Graphite Furnace Power Supply and Programmer

  • Quantitative analysis GFAAS

  • Effect of Matrix on Height and Area


1 graphite furnace atomizer components

1. Graphite furnace atomizer components

The Graphite Furnace Atomizer

A basic graphite furnace atomizer is comprised of the following components:

· graphite tube

· electrical contacts

· enclosed water cooled housing

· inert purge gas controls


C hapter 3 atomic absorption spectroscopy

THGA graphite tube

Fig 4-27


C hapter 3 atomic absorption spectroscopy

  • The Graphite Furnace Power Supply and Programmer

  • A Graphite Furnace Temperature Program

    • Drying

    • Pyrolysis

    • Cool Down(optional)

    • Atomization

    • Clean Out

    • Cool Down


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