Instructed second language learning
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Instructed Second language learning. Gass chapter 11 Presented by Mick Hidding & Yao Cui. 11.1 Classroom Language. Learners do not pick up errors from one another. They do pick up corrections. Learners usually know if they are right/wrong/not sure. . 11.1 Classroom Language con’t.

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Instructed Second language learning

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Instructed second language learning

Instructed Second language learning

Gass chapter 11

Presented by

Mick Hidding &

Yao Cui


11 1 classroom language

11.1 Classroom Language

  • Learners do not pick up errors from one another.

  • They do pick up corrections.

  • Learners usually know if they are right/wrong/not sure.


11 1 classroom language con t

11.1 Classroom Language con’t.

  • Learners usually look for confirmation in reading, listening, & speaking.

  • Classroom conversation is a tool for learning.


11 1 classroom language con t1

11.1 Classroom Language con’t

  • When learning conversations students generate hypothesishypothesis testingextension of knowledgeapply to new context


11 2 input processing

11.2 Input processing

  • Sometimes teacher interventions are necessary to prevent learners’ errors.

  • Learners who get more explicit instruction do better.


11 2 input processing con t

11.2 Input processing con’t

  • “Garden Path” studies (Tomasello & Herron) show that corrective feedback is more meaningful after the learner makes an error as opposed to preventing the error.


11 2 input processing con t1

11.2 Input processing con’t

  • Studies show that some sort of comprehension must take place before acquisition starts.

  • Top-down vs. bottom-up processing.


11 2 input processing con t2

11.2 Input processing con’t

  • Semantic comprehension MUST come before syntactic comprehension.

  • Syntactic comprehension is a prerequisite to acquisition.

  • Semantic comprehension is necessary for syntactic comprehension but does not guarantee it.


11 3 teachability v learnability

11.3 Teachability v. Learnability

  • Studies show there is some sort of natural order for acquisition.

  • See page 318 of Gass Chapter 11 for Developmental Stages of English Question Formation.

  • Natural order sequence CAN BE sped up with instruction!


11 4 focus on form

11.4 Focus on Form

Form vs. FormS

  • Form=focus on true acquisition, meaning and communication

  • FormS=focus on individual language items such as plurals, verbs, grammar


11 4 focus on form con t

11.4 Focus on Form con’t

  • Interaction Logs train students to think about their language acquisition as they use it in their daily lives.

  • Students write experiences with native speakers: what, how, why.

  • See page 322 for examples.


11 4 focus on form1

11.4 Focus on Form

  • Form instruction is not practical with very complex structures e.g. “participial adjectives of emotive verbs and passives.”

  • Studies show that learners who received explicit instruction in theses areas have a better overall “readiness” to acquire the new information.


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Classroom Instruction can provide a richness that informal learning cannot.

  • However factors such as socioeconomic backgrounds and educational backgrounds also come into play in second language learning.


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