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Instructed Second language learning. Gass chapter 11 Presented by Mick Hidding & Yao Cui. 11.1 Classroom Language. Learners do not pick up errors from one another. They do pick up corrections. Learners usually know if they are right/wrong/not sure. . 11.1 Classroom Language con’t.

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instructed second language learning

Instructed Second language learning

Gass chapter 11

Presented by

Mick Hidding &

Yao Cui

11 1 classroom language
11.1 Classroom Language
  • Learners do not pick up errors from one another.
  • They do pick up corrections.
  • Learners usually know if they are right/wrong/not sure.
11 1 classroom language con t
11.1 Classroom Language con’t.
  • Learners usually look for confirmation in reading, listening, & speaking.
  • Classroom conversation is a tool for learning.
11 1 classroom language con t1
11.1 Classroom Language con’t
  • When learning conversations students generate hypothesishypothesis testingextension of knowledgeapply to new context
11 2 input processing
11.2 Input processing
  • Sometimes teacher interventions are necessary to prevent learners’ errors.
  • Learners who get more explicit instruction do better.
11 2 input processing con t
11.2 Input processing con’t
  • “Garden Path” studies (Tomasello & Herron) show that corrective feedback is more meaningful after the learner makes an error as opposed to preventing the error.
11 2 input processing con t1
11.2 Input processing con’t
  • Studies show that some sort of comprehension must take place before acquisition starts.
  • Top-down vs. bottom-up processing.
11 2 input processing con t2
11.2 Input processing con’t
  • Semantic comprehension MUST come before syntactic comprehension.
  • Syntactic comprehension is a prerequisite to acquisition.
  • Semantic comprehension is necessary for syntactic comprehension but does not guarantee it.
11 3 teachability v learnability
11.3 Teachability v. Learnability
  • Studies show there is some sort of natural order for acquisition.
  • See page 318 of Gass Chapter 11 for Developmental Stages of English Question Formation.
  • Natural order sequence CAN BE sped up with instruction!
11 4 focus on form
11.4 Focus on Form

Form vs. FormS

  • Form=focus on true acquisition, meaning and communication
  • FormS=focus on individual language items such as plurals, verbs, grammar
11 4 focus on form con t
11.4 Focus on Form con’t
  • Interaction Logs train students to think about their language acquisition as they use it in their daily lives.
  • Students write experiences with native speakers: what, how, why.
  • See page 322 for examples.
11 4 focus on form1
11.4 Focus on Form
  • Form instruction is not practical with very complex structures e.g. “participial adjectives of emotive verbs and passives.”
  • Studies show that learners who received explicit instruction in theses areas have a better overall “readiness” to acquire the new information.
  • Classroom Instruction can provide a richness that informal learning cannot.
  • However factors such as socioeconomic backgrounds and educational backgrounds also come into play in second language learning.