Explaining second language learning i l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 32

Explaining Second Language Learning I PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 535 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Explaining Second Language Learning I. by Lisa Kaci, Josephin Oberhokamp, Hendrik Fitzner & Camilla Honerlage. Table of content. Questions Behaviourism Mimicry and memorization The innatist perspective Universal Grammar “Monitor Model” Psychological theories

Download Presentation

Explaining Second Language Learning I

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Explaining second language learning i l.jpg

Explaining Second Language Learning I

by Lisa Kaci, Josephin Oberhokamp, Hendrik Fitzner & Camilla Honerlage


Table of content l.jpg

Table of content

  • Questions

  • Behaviourism

    • Mimicry and memorization

  • The innatist perspective

    • Universal Grammar

    • “Monitor Model”

  • Psychological theories

    • Cognitivist/developmental perspective

    • Information processing

    • Connectionism

    • The competition model

  • Discussion


Questions l.jpg

Questions

  • What are the steps with which Behaviorism explains language? Name them and give an example.

  • What are the two different theories about the nature of Universal Grammar?

  • What are the 5 hypotheses of Krashen’s “Monitor Model? Explain two of them briefly.

  • To what refer “declarative knowledge” and “procedural knowledge”?

  • What does the Competition Model explain?


Behaviourism l.jpg

Behaviourism

  • Theory of learning

  • Very influential between the 1940s and 1970s

  • Nurture  Environment has great importance


Behaviourism5 l.jpg

Behaviourism

  • Explains learning in terms of:

    • Imitation

    • Practice (mimicry)

    • Reinforcement

       Formation of habit = language development


Behaviourism6 l.jpg

Behaviourism

  • Video: Learning English, Spanglish

  • Video: Some funny guy learning English


Behaviourism7 l.jpg

Behaviourism

  • Influence on development of audiolingual teaching and material

    great emphasis on mimicry and memorization


Behaviourism8 l.jpg

Behaviourism

  • Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis assumes:


Behaviourism9 l.jpg

Behaviourism

  • But: learners did not do the predicted errors

    All learners made nearly the same errors

  • Influence of first language is the process of finding similarities


Criticism on behaviourism and cah l.jpg

Criticism on Behaviourism and CAH

  • Behaviourism + Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis are inadequate explanations for second language acquisition


Universal grammar l.jpg

Universal Grammar

  • Noam Chomsky

  • Innate linguistic knowledge which consists of a set of principles common to all languages

  • Explanation for second language acquisition?


Universal grammar12 l.jpg

Universal Grammar

  • Lydia White:

    • best perspective for second language acquisition; but nature of Universal Grammar is altered

  • Robert Bley-Vroman/Jacquelyn Schachter:

    • Not a good explanation for second language acquisition: critical period is passed

  • Vivian Cook

    • Learners have more knowledge than input could give them


Universal grammar13 l.jpg

Universal Grammar

  • Different theories about its nature

  • Nature and availability of Universal Grammar are the same in first language acquisition and second language acquisition

  • Universal Grammar that is present to second language learners has been altered in its nature by acquisition of other languages


Monitor model l.jpg

Monitor Model

  • Stephen Krashen

  • Model of second language acquisition

  • Influenced by Chomsky‘s theory of first language acquisition


Monitor model15 l.jpg

Monitor Model

Based on 5 hypotheses:

  • Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis

  • Monitor Hypothesis

  • Natural Order Hypothesis

  • Input Hypothesis

  • Affective Filter Hypothesis


Monitor model16 l.jpg

Monitor Model


Psychological theories cognitivist developmental perspective l.jpg

Psychological theories: cognitivist/developmental perspective

  • Since 1990 central role in second language acquisition

  • Computer as metaphor for mind

    • Capacities for storage, integration and retrieval

  • No specific module in brain for acquisition/learning

  • UG as explanation for first language acquisition

     Less successful for second language acquisition


Psychological theories cognitivist developmental perspective18 l.jpg

Psychological theories: cognitivist/developmental perspective

  • Theories:

    • Information processing

    • Connectionism

    • The competition model


Information processing l.jpg

Information processing

  • Norman Segalowitz:

    • Second language acquisition as the building up of knowledge for automatic use of speaking and understanding

    • Learner first pays attention to any aspect of language for understanding/production

       controlled processing

    • Experience/practice  easier process of information

       quicker automatic access


Information processing20 l.jpg

Information processing

Controlled processing

Automatic processing

  • Slow access

  • Under control of attention

  • Limited in capacity

  • Quick access

  • Requires little attention

  • Needs little capacity to perform


Information processing21 l.jpg

Information processing

  • Robert DeKeyser:

    • Second language acquisition as “skill learning”

    • Learning starts with declarative knowledge

    • Becomes procedural knowledge through practice

    • Processes become proceduralized/automized like other skills

    • Parallel to development from controlled to automatic processing


Information processing22 l.jpg

Information processing

Declarative knowledge

Procedural knowledge

  • Involves acquisition of isolated facts and rules

     knowing that

  • e.g. knowing that a car can be driven

  • Requires practice

  • Involves processing of longer units and increasing automization

    knowing how

  • e.g. knowing how to drive a car


Information processing23 l.jpg

Information processing

  • Example: car driving

    • Begin learning to drive a car

      • Close attention to every action/decision

      • Aware that performances can easily be disturbed (e.g. talking)

    • Practice  skill improves

      • Automization

    • Experienced driver

      • Able to pay attention to previously disturbing events


Information processing24 l.jpg

Information processing

  • Restructuring

    • Changes in language behavior

    • Quality changes in learner‘s knowledge

      • New forms are not just added to old

      • Regular systematic reorganization and reformulation

    • Sudden burst of knowledge or backsliding

      • Systematic aspect of learner‘s language incorporates too much or wrong things

         saw + ed


Connectionism l.jpg

Connectionism

  • Innate: only the simple ability to learn

  • Very important: the role of the environment


Connectionism26 l.jpg

Connectionism

  • Emphasis is on the frequency

    • Encountering of specific linguistic features in the input

    • How often features occur together


Connectionism27 l.jpg

Connectionism

  • Knowledge of language built up through exposure

  • “connections” build up

  • Stronger connections the more often something is heard

     chunks


The competition model l.jpg

The competition model

  • Explains first language and second language acquisition

  • Hypothesis:

    “language acquisition occurs without the necessity of a learner‘s focused attention or the need for any innate brain module that is specifically for language“


The competition model29 l.jpg

The competition model

  • Language use and language meaning important

  • Learners understand how to use “cues”

    word order, grammatical markers and animacy of nouns


The competition model30 l.jpg

The competition model

  • Example: „Box push boy“

  • Depends on the mother tongue, how second languages are learned

    • Example: “Il giocattologuardailil bambino”


Questions31 l.jpg

Questions

  • What are the steps with which Behaviorism explains language? Name them and give an example.

  • What are the two different theories about the nature of Universal Grammar?

  • What are the 5 hypotheses of Krashen’s “Monitor Model? Explain two of them briefly.

  • To what refer “declarative knowledge” and “procedural knowledge”?

  • What does the Competition Model explain?


Bibliography l.jpg

Bibliography

Doughty, C. J. & Long, M.H. (eds.) (2003). The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Gramley, S. & Gramley, V. (eds.) (2008). Bielefeld Introduction to Applied Linguistics. Bielefeld: Aithesis.

Lightbown, P. M. & Spada, N. (2006). How Languages are Learned. 3rd Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mitchell, R. & Myles, F. (1998). Second Language Learning Theories. London: Arnold.

Richards, J.C. & Rodgers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Saville-Troike, M. (2006). Introducing Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


  • Login