Africa
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Africa. Modernity and the World. Up until the late 1800s, there were just a few European colonies on the African coastline. No Europeans had really explored the interior of what they called the “Dark Continent”.

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Africa

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Africa

Africa

Modernity and the World


Africa

Up until the late 1800s, there were just a few European colonies on the African coastline. No Europeans had really explored the interior of what they called the “Dark Continent”.


Africa

In the early 1880s, King Leopold II of Belgium paid for expeditions to the theCongo in the center of the African continent.

He claimed that, “millions of men still plunged in barbarismwill be at the dawn of a better era.”

But he really wanted the Congo’s natural resources: copper, rubber and ivory. He forced the locals to work for almost nothing and had them killed and tortured if they complained or disobeyed.


Africa

Remember “The White Man’s Burden”???

Which one do you think is more accurate?


Africa

Many Africans gave up traditional agriculture to work for European companies. Some worked on rubber plantations or in copper mines. Others built railroads to bring these natural resources to ports, where they could be shipped to Europe and used in factories.

What impact would these changes in African employment patterns have on African ability to resist or challenge modernity?


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Europeans: Carving up a Continent

Who is missing from this picture???


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Opening of the Suez Canal (1869): What purpose did it serve?


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Berlin Conference (1884):

Context: remember the status quo?

What were Bismark's concerns re: imperialism? (pg 304)

Purpose of the Berlin Conference?

European countries decided they could claim African colonies just by setting up government offices in African territory.

This set off a Great Scramble as Europeans rushed to colonize Africa.

Why???


Africa

-British Official

“We have been engaged in drawing lines upon maps where no white man’s foot has ever trod.

We have been giving away mountains and rivers and lakes to each other, only hindered by the small impediment that we never knew exactly where the mountains and rivers were.”


Africa

By 1914, there were only two independent countries left in all of Africa.

What new countries were growing empires?

“We do not want to put anyone in the shade, but we also demand our place in the sun” –Germany

Where do these lines come from???


Africa

African Resistance 1?

“I have listened to your words but can find no reason why I should obey you – I would rather die first… If you desire friendship, then I am ready for it, today and always. But I cannot be your subject. If you desire war, then I am ready.” -Chief Machemba (1890)

What do you think happened?


African resistence 2 european change in tactics

African Resistence 2 & European change in tactics

  • Mahdi Revolt --Sudan(1881)

  • Ethiopia and Italy (1896)

  • Ethiopia and Italy 2 (1935)

  • European penetration and control over the interior of Africa depended on…..? (p 318) What does this tell us about the role of indigenous African government/politics in the success of European modernity?

  • Change in European technique in the 1890's. What and why?

  • The Buganda example: the gift of private property to elite chiefs and taxation.

  • Tribes as colonial/national units?

  • Cash crops? Purpose? Consequences?


Decolonization and modernity

Decolonization and Modernity

  • Post ww1 , ww2

  • Exit of European powers

  • Tribal conflict

  • Soviet opportunism (cold war context)

  • European neo-colonialism (saves the day!)

  • Africanism & pan-Africanism as a response to Modernity? (early 20th C)

  • Can African operate as a nation state? One history, one language, one people, one future?


Future trends

Future Trends

  • China storms Africa

  • Islamic extremism in Africa

  • Food Aid and its Failure


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