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Africa. Chapters 13,14, and 15. Nigeria. Mangrove  a tropical tree with roots that extend both above and beneath water. Savannas tropical grasslands with only a few trees. Harmattan  a dusty wind. Economic Challenges. One of the world’s major oil-producing countries

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africa

Africa

Chapters 13,14, and 15

nigeria
Nigeria
  • Mangrove a tropical tree with roots that extend both above and beneath water.
  • Savannas tropical grasslands with only a few trees.
  • Harmattan a dusty wind.
economic challenges
Economic Challenges
  • One of the world’s major oil-producing countries
  • Most people work as farmers.
  • Subsistence farms small plots that grow just enough to feed their families.
  • Cacao a tropical tree whose seeds are used to make chocolate and cocoa.
nigeria s people
Nigeria’s People
  • About 250 ethnic groups
    • Hausa, Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibo
  • Compound group of houses surrounded by walls.
  • About half the population are Muslim
  • 40% Christian
  • Civil war a fight among different groups within a country
land and history of the sahel
Land and History of the Sahel
  • Five countries—Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Chad, are located in an area known as the Sahel, which means “border”.
  • Most here traditionally herd livestock
  • Overgraze strip areas so bare that plants cannot grow back.
  • Drought a long period of extreme dryness and water shortages.
  • Desertification process in which grassland areas become desert.
the people of the sahel
The People of the Sahel
  • Mostly subsistence farmers
  • Mostly Muslim
  • Mauritania exports fish and iron ore
  • Mali is developing a gold mining industry.
  • Chad has oil deposits, but no money to build pipelines.
west africa s coastal countries
West Africa’s Coastal Countries
  • 11 coastal countries
  • Deforestation
  • All earned their independence by the late 1970s
people of coastal west africa
People of Coastal West Africa
  • Gambia, Senegal, and Guinea work in agriculture
  • Guinea also rich in bauxite and diamonds
  • Senegal phosphate
  • Liberia is only West African nation that was never a colony.
  • Cote d’Ivoire “ivory coast”
democratic republic of the congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Canopy an umbrella-like forest covering
  • Congo River provides hydroelectric power electricity generated by flowing water.
  • Exports gold, petroleum, diamonds, and copper.
  • More than 200 ethnic groups
  • 75% are Christian
  • First settled 10,000 years ago
  • Bantu moved here form Nigeria around AD 600s or 700s.
cameroon and the central african republic
Cameroon and the Central African Republic
  • Most people here farm.
  • Tsetse fly causes sleeping sickness.
  • Cameroon forest products, petroleum, and bauxite
  • CAR only diamonds
congo and gabon
Congo and Gabon
  • Both won their independence from France in 1960.
  • Congo River supports most of Congo’s farmland.
  • Both countries depend heavily on farming.
  • deforestation
island countries
Island Countries
  • Equatorial Guinea and Sao Tome and Principe are both island nations.
  • Equatorial Guinea became independent from Spain in 1968
    • Farming, fishing, and forestry are important.
    • Oil was recently found.
  • Sao Tome and Principe gained independence from Portugal in 1975
    • Volcanic islands
    • Coconuts, bananas, and cacao
kenya
Kenya
  • Coral reef
  • Poaching the illegal hunting of protected wildlife
  • Free enterprise system
  • Nairobi capital
  • Cassava a plant whose roots are ground to porridge.
  • Swahili and English
  • Won independence from Great Britain in 1963.
  • Most people are farmers
  • Mombasa is the chief port.
tanzania
Tanzania
  • Serengeti Plain
  • Kilimanjaro highest point in Africa
  • Most work in farming or herding
  • Lake Victoria Africa’s largest lake.
  • Sisal a plant fiber used to make rope and twine
  • Habitat the type of environment in which a particular animal species lives
  • Ecotourists people who travel to another country to view its natural wonders.
uganda
Uganda
  • Fertile, green land with mountains, lakes, and wild animals.
  • Mild climate due to elevation.
  • Plantains a kind of banana
  • 2/3 of population are Christians
  • Autonomy self government
  • Today one of the fastest growing economies in the world.
rwanda and burundi
Rwanda and Burundi
  • Watershed a region that is drained by a river
  • Endangered species a plant or animal under the threat of extinction (gorillas)
  • Coffee is the main export for both countries
  • Genocide the deliberate murder of a group of people because of their race or culture.
sudan
Sudan
  • Sudan is the largest country in Africa
  • NorthDesert
  • Central fertile because of Blue and White Nile Rivers
  • South Swampy
  • Sugar cane, nutes, dates, and cotton
ethiopia
Ethiopia
  • Scientists believe they have found the remains of the oldest known human ancestors in Ethiopia
  • Rain is not consistent.
  • 85% live in rural areas.
eritrea
Eritrea
  • 1993 won its independence from Ethiopia
  • Most people are farmers
djibouti
Djibouti
  • Plates huge slabs of rock that make up the earth’s crust
    • Two of these plates are pulling away from each other in Djibouti
  • One of the hottest, driest places on the earth.
somalia
Somalia
  • Most people are nomadic herders
  • Clans
  • No real government in charge today.
a land rich in resources
A Land Rich in Resources
  • South Africa
  • African elephant
  • Miniature shrew
  • South Africa is the most industrialized country in Africa
  • World’s largest producer and exporter of gold.
  • Large deposits of diamonds, chromite, platinum, and coal.
south africa s history and people
South Africa’s History and People
  • Black ethnics make up 78% of the population.
  • 1600s, the Dutch settled in South Africa
    • Known as Boers, a Dutch word for farmers
    • Pushed Africans off the best land
  • 1910, British take control
  • 1948, whites set up a system of apartheid or “apartness”
    • This made it illegal for racial and ethnic groups to mix and limited the rights of blacks.
south africa
South Africa
  • Within South Africa lie two other African nations—Lesotho and Swaziland
  • Enclaves small countries located inside a larger country.
zambia
Zambia
  • Copper belt large area of copper mines that stretches across northern Zambia
    • 80% of Zambia’s income comes from copper.
  • Gained independence from Britain in 1964
malawi
Malawi
  • 500 species of fish in Lake Malawi
  • 400 orchid species
  • British colony until 1964.
zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
  • Gold, copper, iron ore, and asbestos
  • AIDS
  • Name comes from a great city in the AD 1100s.
botswana
Botswana
  • Diamonds account for more than 75% of Botswana’s export income
  • Became independent from Britain in 1966.
  • Today, have one of Africa’s strongest democracies.
angola
Angola
  • Exclave a small part of a country that is separated from the main part.
  • Oil accounts for 90% of Angola’s export earning
  • A colony of Portugal until 1975.
namibia
Namibia
  • Became independent in 1990 after being ruled by South Africa, and Germany before that.
  • Deposits of diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, silver, and lead.
  • Leading producer of uranium
mozambique
Mozambique
  • Slash-and-burn farming a method of clearing land for plating by cutting and burning forests.
  • Cyclones intense storms with heavy rains and high circular winds.
  • Major crops cashews, cotton, sugarcane, tea, coconuts, and tropical fruits
madagascar
Madagascar
  • The island of Madagascar broke away from the continent about 160 million years ago
  • Produces most of the world’s vanilla beans
  • Coffee is the main cash crop.
small island countries
Small Island Countries
  • Volcanoes formed the countries of Comoros and Mauritius thousands of years ago
  • Seychelles
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