Africa
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Africa. Chapters 13,14, and 15. Nigeria. Mangrove  a tropical tree with roots that extend both above and beneath water. Savannas tropical grasslands with only a few trees. Harmattan  a dusty wind. Economic Challenges. One of the world’s major oil-producing countries

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Africa

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Africa

Africa

Chapters 13,14, and 15


Nigeria

Nigeria

  • Mangrove a tropical tree with roots that extend both above and beneath water.

  • Savannas tropical grasslands with only a few trees.

  • Harmattan a dusty wind.


Economic challenges

Economic Challenges

  • One of the world’s major oil-producing countries

  • Most people work as farmers.

  • Subsistence farms small plots that grow just enough to feed their families.

  • Cacao a tropical tree whose seeds are used to make chocolate and cocoa.


Nigeria s people

Nigeria’s People

  • About 250 ethnic groups

    • Hausa, Fulani, Yoruba, and Ibo

  • Compound group of houses surrounded by walls.

  • About half the population are Muslim

  • 40% Christian

  • Civil war a fight among different groups within a country


Land and history of the sahel

Land and History of the Sahel

  • Five countries—Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Chad, are located in an area known as the Sahel, which means “border”.

  • Most here traditionally herd livestock

  • Overgraze strip areas so bare that plants cannot grow back.

  • Drought a long period of extreme dryness and water shortages.

  • Desertification process in which grassland areas become desert.


The people of the sahel

The People of the Sahel

  • Mostly subsistence farmers

  • Mostly Muslim

  • Mauritania exports fish and iron ore

  • Mali is developing a gold mining industry.

  • Chad has oil deposits, but no money to build pipelines.


West africa s coastal countries

West Africa’s Coastal Countries

  • 11 coastal countries

  • Deforestation

  • All earned their independence by the late 1970s


People of coastal west africa

People of Coastal West Africa

  • Gambia, Senegal, and Guinea work in agriculture

  • Guinea also rich in bauxite and diamonds

  • Senegal phosphate

  • Liberia is only West African nation that was never a colony.

  • Cote d’Ivoire “ivory coast”


Democratic republic of the congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo

  • Canopy an umbrella-like forest covering

  • Congo River provides hydroelectric power electricity generated by flowing water.

  • Exports gold, petroleum, diamonds, and copper.

  • More than 200 ethnic groups

  • 75% are Christian

  • First settled 10,000 years ago

  • Bantu moved here form Nigeria around AD 600s or 700s.


Cameroon and the central african republic

Cameroon and the Central African Republic

  • Most people here farm.

  • Tsetse fly causes sleeping sickness.

  • Cameroon forest products, petroleum, and bauxite

  • CAR only diamonds


Congo and gabon

Congo and Gabon

  • Both won their independence from France in 1960.

  • Congo River supports most of Congo’s farmland.

  • Both countries depend heavily on farming.

  • deforestation


Island countries

Island Countries

  • Equatorial Guinea and Sao Tome and Principe are both island nations.

  • Equatorial Guinea became independent from Spain in 1968

    • Farming, fishing, and forestry are important.

    • Oil was recently found.

  • Sao Tome and Principe gained independence from Portugal in 1975

    • Volcanic islands

    • Coconuts, bananas, and cacao


Kenya

Kenya

  • Coral reef

  • Poaching the illegal hunting of protected wildlife

  • Free enterprise system

  • Nairobi capital

  • Cassava a plant whose roots are ground to porridge.

  • Swahili and English

  • Won independence from Great Britain in 1963.

  • Most people are farmers

  • Mombasa is the chief port.


Tanzania

Tanzania

  • Serengeti Plain

  • Kilimanjaro highest point in Africa

  • Most work in farming or herding

  • Lake Victoria Africa’s largest lake.

  • Sisal a plant fiber used to make rope and twine

  • Habitat the type of environment in which a particular animal species lives

  • Ecotourists people who travel to another country to view its natural wonders.


Uganda

Uganda

  • Fertile, green land with mountains, lakes, and wild animals.

  • Mild climate due to elevation.

  • Plantains a kind of banana

  • 2/3 of population are Christians

  • Autonomy self government

  • Today one of the fastest growing economies in the world.


Rwanda and burundi

Rwanda and Burundi

  • Watershed a region that is drained by a river

  • Endangered species a plant or animal under the threat of extinction (gorillas)

  • Coffee is the main export for both countries

  • Genocide the deliberate murder of a group of people because of their race or culture.


Sudan

Sudan

  • Sudan is the largest country in Africa

  • NorthDesert

  • Central fertile because of Blue and White Nile Rivers

  • South Swampy

  • Sugar cane, nutes, dates, and cotton


Ethiopia

Ethiopia

  • Scientists believe they have found the remains of the oldest known human ancestors in Ethiopia

  • Rain is not consistent.

  • 85% live in rural areas.


Eritrea

Eritrea

  • 1993 won its independence from Ethiopia

  • Most people are farmers


Djibouti

Djibouti

  • Plates huge slabs of rock that make up the earth’s crust

    • Two of these plates are pulling away from each other in Djibouti

  • One of the hottest, driest places on the earth.


Somalia

Somalia

  • Most people are nomadic herders

  • Clans

  • No real government in charge today.


A land rich in resources

A Land Rich in Resources

  • South Africa

  • African elephant

  • Miniature shrew

  • South Africa is the most industrialized country in Africa

  • World’s largest producer and exporter of gold.

  • Large deposits of diamonds, chromite, platinum, and coal.


South africa s history and people

South Africa’s History and People

  • Black ethnics make up 78% of the population.

  • 1600s, the Dutch settled in South Africa

    • Known as Boers, a Dutch word for farmers

    • Pushed Africans off the best land

  • 1910, British take control

  • 1948, whites set up a system of apartheid or “apartness”

    • This made it illegal for racial and ethnic groups to mix and limited the rights of blacks.


South africa

South Africa

  • Within South Africa lie two other African nations—Lesotho and Swaziland

  • Enclaves small countries located inside a larger country.


Zambia

Zambia

  • Copper belt large area of copper mines that stretches across northern Zambia

    • 80% of Zambia’s income comes from copper.

  • Gained independence from Britain in 1964


Malawi

Malawi

  • 500 species of fish in Lake Malawi

  • 400 orchid species

  • British colony until 1964.


Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe

  • Gold, copper, iron ore, and asbestos

  • AIDS

  • Name comes from a great city in the AD 1100s.


Botswana

Botswana

  • Diamonds account for more than 75% of Botswana’s export income

  • Became independent from Britain in 1966.

  • Today, have one of Africa’s strongest democracies.


Angola

Angola

  • Exclave a small part of a country that is separated from the main part.

  • Oil accounts for 90% of Angola’s export earning

  • A colony of Portugal until 1975.


Namibia

Namibia

  • Became independent in 1990 after being ruled by South Africa, and Germany before that.

  • Deposits of diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, silver, and lead.

  • Leading producer of uranium


Mozambique

Mozambique

  • Slash-and-burn farming a method of clearing land for plating by cutting and burning forests.

  • Cyclones intense storms with heavy rains and high circular winds.

  • Major crops cashews, cotton, sugarcane, tea, coconuts, and tropical fruits


Madagascar

Madagascar

  • The island of Madagascar broke away from the continent about 160 million years ago

  • Produces most of the world’s vanilla beans

  • Coffee is the main cash crop.


Small island countries

Small Island Countries

  • Volcanoes formed the countries of Comoros and Mauritius thousands of years ago

  • Seychelles


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