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Genetics. Incomplete Dominance. Where neither the dominant or recessive allele is truly dominant over the other, both are dominant. Incomplete Dominance. The heterozygote will “blend” the two traits into an intermediate third trait RED Flower x WHITE Flower ---> PINK Flower.

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Incomplete dominance
Incomplete Dominance

  • Where neither the dominant or recessive allele is truly dominant over the other, both are dominant


Incomplete dominance1
Incomplete Dominance

  • The heterozygote will “blend” the two traits into an intermediate third trait

  • RED Flower x WHITE Flower ---> PINK Flower


Incomplete dominance2
Incomplete Dominance

  • Because neither allele is dominant over the other, we use a large base letter indicating the character and a capital superscript showing trait CR CRfor red flower

    CW CWfor white flower

    One allele from each parent is passed on. A cross would produce CR CW which is pink phenotype.



Codominance
Codominance incomplete dominance

  • Similar to incomplete dominance because it too creates a 3rd phenotype, different from parents.

  • Parental traits don’t blend, instead the two traits appear together in a hybrid

redandwhite-->red&whitespotted



X parental pink and white traits.

ROAN COW


Human blood types
Human Blood Types parental pink and white traits.

  • Antigen- molecules that can trigger an immune response

  • A carries A antigen

  • B carries B antigen

  • AB has both antigens

  • O carries neither antigen

    Rh Factor; Rh+ carry this antigen, while Rh- individuals don’t.

  • In transfusions, a new antigen cannot be introduced into the body of recipient


How common is your blood type? parental pink and white traits.

46.1%

38.8%

11.1%

3.9%


O parental pink and white traits.

A

B

AB

  • Who can give you blood?

  • People with TYPE O blood are called Universal Donors, because they can give blood to any blood type.

  • People with TYPE AB blood are called Universal Recipients, because they can receive any blood type.

  • Rh +  Can receive + or -

  • Rh -  Can only receive -

Universal Donor

Universal Recipient


Polygenic inheritance
Polygenic Inheritance parental pink and white traits.

  • When multiple genes affect a single character, variation

  • Height, weight, eye color, skin color

  • Suppose ABC were 3 “TALL” alleles and abc were 3 “short” alleles

  • Someone with genotype AABBCC would be very tall, while someone with genotype AaBBCC would be slightly less tall


AB: Dark Red plants parental pink and white traits.

ab: white plants

Wide RANGE of phenotypes


Environment influence on phenotype
Environment Influence on Phenotype parental pink and white traits.

  • Sometimes an organisms phenotype depends on their environment regardless of genotype

  • For example, hydrangea flowers of the same genotype range from blue-violet to pink, depending on soil acidity



Gene linkage
Gene Linkage temperatures like cat’s extremities

  • Genes on separate chromosomes assort and separate independently from each other

  • Genes located on SAME chromosome and close together (close gene-loci) tend to be inherited together. * Genetic linkage

  • If genes are far apart, but on the same chromosome, crossing over could separate them


Sex linked genes
Sex-Linked Genes temperatures like cat’s extremities

  • Any gene located on an sex chromosome is a sex-linked gene

  • In humans, most of these are on the X chromosome (much bigger than Y)


Hemophilia x linked genetic recessive disorder
Hemophilia: X-linked genetic RECESSIVE disorder temperatures like cat’s extremities

h

H

h


Mother is a carrier temperatures like cat’s extremities

H

H

h

H

h

h

H

H

H


FATHER IS A CARRIER temperatures like cat’s extremities

h

H

H

H

h

H


Red green color blindness
Red-green color blindness temperatures like cat’s extremities

  • X-linked color blind allele is recessive

  • Heterozygous females have normal vision

  • Males who get recessive allele in their only X chromosome are affected.



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