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Hydropower: Electricity From Moving Water. By: Lauren Murphy and Candice Burgan. http://www.lasvegastourism.com/tours/hoover_dam.gif. Main goal. To provide an adequate and efficient natural source of energy without the burning of fossil fuels. To harness the energy of moving water

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Hydropower electricity from moving water

Hydropower: Electricity From Moving Water

By: Lauren Murphy

and Candice Burgan

http://www.lasvegastourism.com/tours/hoover_dam.gif


Main goal
Main goal

  • To provide an adequate and efficient natural source of energy without the burning of fossil fuels.

  • To harness the energy of moving water

  • To provide a cheap source of energy

http://www.danville-va.gov/upload/images/Utilities/Pinnacles%20Hydro.JPG


Layout of a dam
Layout of a Dam

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/hyhowworks.html


How it works
How it works

  • Build a dam on a large river that has a large drop in elevation

  • The dam stores lots of water behind it in the reservoir

  • Near the bottom of the dam wall there is the water intake

  • Gravity causes it to fall through the penstock inside the dam

  • At the end of the penstock there is a turbine propeller, which is turned by the moving water


How it works contd
How it works contd.

  • The shaft from the turbine goes up into the generator, which produces the power

  • Power lines are connected to the generator that carry electricity

  • The water continues past the propeller through the tailrace into the river past the dam


Hydroelectric generator
Hydroelectric generator

A hydraulic turbine converts the energy of flowing water into mechanical energy.

A hydroelectric generator converts this mechanical energy into electricity.

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/hyhowworks.html


Hydroelectric power 9 8
Hydroelectric Power: 9.8%

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html


Top generating countries
Top Generating Countries

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html


Expense of power production
Expense of Power Production

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html


Purpose of dams
Purpose of Dams

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html


Provides 97 9 of all electricity by renewable resources
Provides 97.9% of all Electricity by Renewable Resources

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html


Advantages
Advantages

  •  - Fuel is not burned so there is minimal pollution -Water to run the power plant is provided free by

  • nature -  It's renewable - rainfall renews the water in the reservoir, so the fuel is almost always there

  • No waste products

  • Moderate to high net energy

  • High efficiency (80%)

  • Low cost electricity

  • Long life span

  • Provides flood control below dam

  • Provides year-round water for irrigation and crop land

  • Useful for fishing and recreation due to reservoir


Disadvantages environmental problems
Disadvantages/Environmental problems

  • High construction costs

  • High environmental impacts

  • High CO2 emissions from biomass decay in shallow reservoirs

  • Floods natural areas

  • Converts land habitat to lake habitat

  • Danger of collapse

  • Uproots people

  • Decreases fish harvest below dam

  • Decreases flow of natural fertilizer to land below dam

  • Large water loss due to evaporation


Collapsing of dams
Collapsing of dams

  • Many dams aren’t maintained properly

  • Lack of concern about risk and problems

  • This causes mass-flooding and even loss of life

  • Internal erosion

http://www.hatchenergy.com/Innovations/Spring2006/guest_dam.html


Problems with hydropower
Problems with hydropower

  • Takes up a lot of space

  • Costs are extremely high

  • Good land areas for construction have already been taken

  • Consumes a lot of time for planning and construction

  • The life expectancy of dams are only around 50 years

    • Even at this age these dams are considered to be at a high risk for failing


Rate of construction
Rate of construction

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wuhy.html


Make a difference
Make a difference

  • Hydroelectricity eliminates the flue gas emissions from fossil fuels, including pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, dust, and mercury in the coal.

  • Doesn’t contribute to global warming!

http://www.solcomhouse.com/Global_Warming.gif


Technological obstacles
Technological obstacles

  • Building strong and efficient dams to withstand the passage of time

  • Find efficient ways to minimize environmental impacts

http://www.srh.noaa.gov/tlh/cpm/woodruff_dam_pic.jpg


Political economic obstacles
Political/Economic obstacles

  • High production/building costs

  • Creating total revenue to build

  • Value tradeoffs

  • Market prices

  • Water use allocations cause controversy

  • Mass displacement of people

  • Large investments in energy sources (large scale dams)


Three gorges dam
Three Gorges Dam

  • Largest dam in the world

http://www.theage.com.au/ffximage/2006/06/23/knDAM_wideweb__470x309,0.jpg


Bibliography
Bibliography

  • http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/hyhowworks.html

  • http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wuhy.html

  • http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html

  • http://www.lasvegastourism.com/tours/hoover_dam.gif

  • http://oilbeseeingyou.blogspot.com/2007/07/post-peak-dam-maintenance-or-lack.html

  • http://www.theage.com.au/ffximage/2006/06/23/knDAM_wideweb__470x309,0.jpg

  • http://www.srh.noaa.gov/tlh/cpm/woodruff_dam_pic.jpg

  • http://www.hatchenergy.com/Innovations/Spring2006/guest_dam.html

  • http://www.danville-va.gov/upload/images/Utilities/Pinnacles%20Hydro.JPG


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