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Consolidation of power Soviet Russia Private citizens lost control of property—claimed by state Banks became state monopoly Only small withdrawals permitted Private trade forbidden at all levels Peasants required to sell grain at government’s price

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Consolidation of power Soviet Russia Private citizens lost control of property—claimed by state

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Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Consolidation of power

  • Soviet Russia

  • Private citizens lost control of property—claimed by state

  • Banks became state monopoly

  • Only small withdrawals permitted

  • Private trade forbidden at all levels

  • Peasants required to sell grain at government’s price

  • Elections for constituent assembly—Bolsheviks came poor second, behind SRs

  • Broke up 1st and last meeting of assembly with help of pro-bolshevik soldiers

  • Liberal press suppressed

  • Entire judicial system, including supreme court and senate replaced by “people’s courts”

  • Local government abolished

  • Opposition parties outlawed

  • Provincial government, universities, learning societies and clubs all bolshevized in 8 months

  • Brest Litovsk March 1918: 1.3 million square miles and 62 million people lost

  • Bolshevikscommunists March 1918, moved capital to moscow

  • Whites—supported by russian orthodox church (their propaganda arm), reactionary monarchists, big landowners, middle class, some peasants (angry about grain), nationalists seeking self-determination, even moderate socialists (mensheviks, some SRs)—lacked clear program, not cooperative and unorganized

  • Red army—highly organized, homogenous, controlled major industrial centers and held interior lines of communications, especially Moscow-Petrograd railway—facilitated movement of troops. Trotsky blackmailed old tsarist officers into fighting. Support of big landowners to whites alienated peasantry who feared loss of newly acquired land.


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Communists won civil war but alienated bourgeoisie who lost their businesses, nobility who lost estates, peasantry who had crops confiscated or purchased at artificially low prices (“war communism”) and even workers who had trade unions abolished

  • 14,000-20,000 church officials and active laymen shot during Lenin’s regime, ecclesiastical land confiscated by officially atheist authorities

  • 3 million russians fled by end of civil war

  • Foreign governments outraged by communists’ indifference to international law and normal diplomatic relations—particularly attempts to incite communist revolutions in other countries

  • Siege mentality—enemies within and without

  • Early 1921, area under cultivation <60% of prewar level, agricultural yield<50%, marketable surpluses were decreasing because large, relatively efficient noble estatessmall farms

  • Output of heavy industry 13% of prewar level

  • Lenin introduced NEP after Kronstadt soldiers revolted

  • Ended grain requisitioning, peasants allowed to sell grain on open market, operation of small scale retail businesses with less than 20 employees allowed, but large scale businesses, transportation and banking still in government hands

  • 1927, industrial production back to prewar levels

  • After lenin’s death, testament critical of stalin (and everyone else in politburo) suppressed by trotsky’s opponents

  • Stalin had appointed trusted people to influential positions while purging rivals as General Secretary

  • All Stalin’s rivals were jewish and fought amongst each other

  • Ban on factionalism meant no room for objection—no intraparty democracy

  • Stalin had a following he could rely upon at party congresses

  • Socialism in one country skillfully contrasted with Trotsky’s alleged “perm revolution” theory


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Lenin had never abandoned idea of fomenting international revolutions and trotsky didn’t favor offensive measures in any circumstances

  • Stalin’s theory sounded more cautious, stable and appealed to patriots who wanted equality and even superiority of russia over the west

  • Fascist Italy

  • Italy lacked strong democratic tradition

  • Constitution inherited from old Piedmont—not drafted by elected assembly

  • Allowed king to choose pm if no party in chamber of deputies (lower house) had majority—no majority ever existed

  • King also appointed members of senate. Lower house elected on very narrow franchise till 1912

  • Low standard of living, not very industrialized—shortage of natural resources, isolation from rest of europe, difficulty in domestic communications/transport because of narrow elongated shape, mountains and islands, sharp north-south political divide and regional antagonism

  • Universal manhood suffrage established 1912—5 million voters, 3 million of which were illiterate, no significant experience in politics prior to advent of fascism

  • Rich mainly interested in keeping poor politically impotent, middle class more interested in welfare of own cities than country

  • WW1 exacerbated problems—catholics, most of the socialists , business people and peasants favored neutrality

  • King, nationalists, liberal press, army, university students, intellectuals, ship builders and steel industry favored intervention (minority)

  • Parliament bullied into going to war by mobs in large cities, e.g. Milan (mussolini carried out prowar demonstrations)


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Prowar people failed to consider Alps, the natural defense of austria-italy border

  • 650,000 died, 750, 000 italian speaking austrians annexed along with 750,000 difficult to assimilate ethnic germans and south slavs

  • Not granted all territory it had been promised in treaty of london

  • Angry nationalists called treaty of st. germain a mutilated peace

  • Economy deteriorated—no more loans from war allies, unemployment rising as soldiers returned home—2 million by 1919

  • Currency collapsed, cost of living rose

  • National debt huge because of war expenditure

  • New system of proportional representation introduced

  • Socialists had the largest party, but badly divided, refused to collaborate with other parties and obstructed passage of progressive legislation—believed that crisis of capitalism required for dictatorship of the proletariat

  • Split of left wing—Italian communist party, wanted to make things worse to create chaos—communist revolution facilitated

  • New catholic popular party lacked internal cohesion and agreed only on opposition to anticlericalism

  • Middle class liberal party led by giolitti—prime minister for most of early postwar period and lacked popular support—could only form governments by default

  • Fasciodicombattimento—formed march 1919 in milan—fascio=group instead of “party”—new popular movement, stood apart from old corrupt parties, movement of struggle and action

  • Paramilitary character and appearance—many ex-soldiers

  • At first, fascist program was anti-capitalist, anti-clerical and republican

  • Had little success with working classes—they remained loyal to socialists


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Instead, 1919-1920 drew support from middle and lower class: students, journalists, unemployed professionals, veterans

  • November 1919 humiliating defeat in elections (no seats won at all)

  • By summer 1920, however, had 36 branches and a total of 20,000 members, mainly in great cities of northern Italy

  • Liberal state electoral reform was political suicide—liberals lost dominance in 1919 election

  • Mass politics—radicalized politics, because of wilson’s 14 points for democratic future, promises made by wartime leaders to rally support for war, bolshevik revolution, informal political education of poor soldiers by educated soldiers in trenches

  • November 1919 elections triumph of mass politics—Socialists (largest) and catholic PPI

  • Universal desire for change, old parties discredited by war

  • Situation of political stalemate in parliament meant paralysis of legal parliamentary gov

  • Socialists refused to accept responsibilities of parliament—”Down with Parliament!”

  • PPI left to handle gov—brand new, inexperienced, heterogeneous

  • PPI junior partner in shortlived coalition governments led by liberal nobles—nitti, giolitti, bonomi, facta 1919-1922

  • Liberals and PPI both intransigent—liberals unwilling to recognize tactics of transformism wouldn’t work in new era of mass politics and failed to treat PPI as independent political entity

  • 1915 crisis had split liberals into neutralists and interventionists, so little cooperation

  • Italians dissatisfied by mutilated victory even though they did well and gained most territories (except share of german and turkish empires, esp. fiume which had 50% italians)—fascists and nationalists claimed italy was cheated

  • Sept 1919 (even though fiume had not been promised to italy under treaty of london) D’annunzio and his arditti seized fiume until december 1920 when Giolitti finally sent troops to oust him


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Reluctance and slowness of government to crush this rebellion damaged credibility—suggested government unwilling to prevent right wing violence and illegal action

  • Economy problems hit middle classes most and those with less bargaining problems than unionised working class

  • Postwar militancy of working class—”red two years” 1918-1920

  • Expansion of manufacturing industry during war led to growth of working class and political radicalization of sections of peasantry

  • Increase in membership of working class organizations, socialist party, militancy at rank and file level of trade unions, peasantry leagues—freed from wartime restrictions

  • Numerous strikes, protests against rise in cost of living, occupations of factories and land, systematic violence against opponents of socialism

  • But leadership hadn’t developed a revolutionary strategy and had no practical plans

  • Occupation of factories in summer 1920, started in Turin because of failure of Employer-Trade Union negotiations in the car industry, spread to other northern italian cities, arms stockpiled in some places—but nothing came out of it, liberals didn’t use force, revolutionary potential and fervor died out

  • Defeat for working class movement—trade union members demoralized, industrialists blamed liberals for humiliation and lost confidence in government

  • Deep fears of socialist revolution in upper and middle classes

  • Backlash of working class movement in countryside: local elections in 1920, socialists advanced, local ruling elites especially large landowners ousted from position s of power, loss of political power and control over agrarian labor market

  • Liberal government followed policy of non-intervention in industrial disputes

  • PPI ministers of agriculture legislated land distribution and improvement of contracts of landless sharecroppers


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Hence absence of adequate government protection for local elites=precondition for fascist squadrism to repress threat from the left

  • Agrarian fascism and development of squadrism spread across northern and central italy as a reaction against agrarian socialism

  • Little known in south because landguards prevented socialism, so no need for reaction

  • Other support came from salaried middle class employees, small business, local professionals, leaseholders, tenant farmers, etc—everyone who had something to lose from socialism

  • Socialists proposed (in theory) collectivisation so those who acquired land post war were against socialists

  • Squadrist violence broke up many peasant leagues

  • Spontaneity of agrarian fascism—under independent provincial leaders (ras), who were virtually out of mussolini and national government’s control

  • Mussolini only recovered some authority by founding national fascist party in 1921

  • 1921 35 fascists elected in Giolitti’s national bloc

  • Support had increased since summer 1920

  • Political expression of middle and lower middle class elements threatened by both big businesses and socialists (socialists forcibly reduced prices)

  • Fascism was a sort of preventive counter-revolution

  • Mussolini boldly proclaimed fascists had saved italy from socialist revolution in 1920 (although no revolution actually took place)

  • Youthfulness emphasized

  • Giolitti endorsed fascists to get majority in parliament—underestimated mussolini and overlooked squadristi violence—failed to get majority, but fascists stayed on in parliament with a respectable parliamentary face, providing prefects, police and other state authorities with excuse to turn blind eye to fascist excesses


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Fascists consolidated conservative and catholic sympathy by abandoning anticapitalism, anti-clericalism and republicanism

  • Combined parliamentary maneuvering with extra parliamentary pressure

  • Reassured church and big business—no nationalization plans, instead privatization of railways, telephones and life insurance

  • Main claim of support—fascists the only force capable of dealing with socialists, alternatively, said only mussolini could control squads, so “normalization” could only be achieved by fascists

  • Strategy and tactics of fascist bid for power dictated by ras—mussolini couldn’t impose “pact of pacification” on fascist squadristi in 1921—too much violence and anarchy

  • Fascist violence in cremona summer 1922 and government’s failure to stop it induced PPI to pull out of coalition—ministerial crisis—labor alliance resorted to general strike to protest fascist violence, but only small percentage of trade unions responded, so failure created propaganda for mussolini

  • Fascists took over Trento, Bolzano, Trieste and other northern italian towns, which left government looking impotent

  • Fascist violence caused disunity of major anti-fascist parties

  • Working class movement virtually disintegrated, socialist party split into communist party and socialist party, further split into PSV to collaborate with other democratic parties against Fascists.

  • PPI wouldn’t ally with left, instead desired compromise with fascists, as did leading liberal-conservative politicians who felt fascists were needed

  • Giolitti expressed willingness to preside over cabinet with some fascists

  • Mussolini warned fascists would seize power by force if not given it

  • Planned march on rome, but mussolini stayed in milan near swiss border—quick getaway, and in the event, strong bargaining position


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Mussolini’s bluff worked—squadristi arrived in romeafter he was appointed PM, threat worked to convince king, so power won legally and constitutionally—coalition with only 35 fascists, but with larger electoral support than that

  • 1922—PM with special emergency powers for a year, mussolini consolidated parliamentary power base—appointed fascists to key positions, himself took up foreign minister and minister of interior, fascists as finance minister, secretary general and under-secretary of state, chief of police

  • Grand council of fascism—assembly of leading fascist bosses as supreme directing organ above cabinet

  • Support consolidated: economic policies favored big business and finance, reintroduction of religious teachings into primary school and increased payments to priests and restoration of crucifixes to public building won support of Vatican and catholics

  • Merger between fascists and nationalists 1923

  • Normalization process by organizing squadristi into militia (MVSN) regulated by law and financed by state—also counter-force if army turned against mussolini, reduced ras’ powers as squads swore oath to mussolini—but squad violence wasn’t significantly reduced as it was useful for intimidating opponents

  • Control over fascist party strengthened by mussolini’s selection of candidates for 1924 elections

  • Emergency powers meant powers to censorship, suspension and closure of press

  • Acerbo law 1923—electoral reform—party with most seats takes 2/3 of parliamentary seats, solid fascist parliamentary in 1924, which was permitted by liberal conservatives who never liked proportional representation, socialists too scared, PPI split without adequate leadership (main leader Sturzo forced to resign by Vatican to appease mussolini)


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • 1924—fascists won 2/3 of votes because of electoral alliance and composition of mussolini’s selected candidates (the ‘big list’), support from middle class and business, anti-fascists scared away, opposition parties fractioned

  • Matteoti killed—major outspoken critic of fascists

  • Aventine secession—communists, both socialist parties, PPI and assortment of liberal-democrats and republicans withdrew from parliament in protest—in the short-term a good move, but in the long-term gave mussolini full power as parliament was no longer a source of opposition

  • Mussolini claimed to be defender of parliamentary legitimization in face of these unconstitutional and subversive opponents—opposition still divided, vatican banned alliance with left, fears of communism

  • Mussolini reshuffled cabinet and restored government’s respectability

  • Consuls of fascist militia demanded (end of 1924) that mussolini deal with anti-fascists

  • So 1925-6 drastic action: ad hoc police measures against individuals and groups, publications, repressive legislation worked on, assassination attempts on mussolini used as propaganda and excuses to introduce these measures

  • Aventine secession deputies violently ejected 1925, year later electoral mandates of all active anti-fascists declared expired, opposition leaders fled or were arrested

  • Legislation outlawed all anti-fascist political organizations and forbade reconstitution, so end of 1926 all opposition parties dissolved by prefects

  • Full power over press—brought to heel by violence or by buying it out, all journalists incorporated in fascist union

  • By 1927 non-fascist trade union confederations dissolved—only fascist unions in control of labor field.

  • Electoral law of 1928 decreed single list of candidates endorsed by grand council


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Election in 1929 a plebiscite endorsed list in atmosphere of fear of squadristi. Single party state established

  • Successive purges of old guard by national party secretaries

  • Many ras removed from provincial power bases, given safe ministerial positions instead—only rarely banished or imprisoned

  • January 1927 prefects once more supreme representatives of state in provinces, fascist anarchy put down, very few local bosses able to maintain influence

  • 1926 elected local governments replaced by appointed officials, local government now carefully regimented

  • Police and civil service purged of non and anti-fascists

  • Special tribunal for political trials with no appeals established with secret police

  • Italian parliament continued to exist with minority of non-fascists, but mussolini no longer responsible to it

  • “Everything within the state. Nothing outside the state. Nothing against the state.”

  • More of a boast—roman catholic church, army, high civil servants, big business and king still remained independent

  • But overt opposition repressed by secret police, special courts and policy of imprisonment without trial

  • Large party membership reflected political influence and privileges for party members—mandatory for all civil servants, including teachers

  • But urban workers and peasants remained underrepresented


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Nazi Germany

  • Industrialized country, large coal supply, navigable rivers, central continental location, prussian-led customs union, which facilitated trade and enlarged markets

  • Lack of natural defences exposed it to invasions by france and russia—growth of national militarism

  • End of WW1 ambiguous—ended not with occupation of germany but “armistice” though actually a surrender

  • German public unaware of disparity of strength and imminent defeat because of propaganda

  • Stab in the back legend—november traitors—those who had signed versailles treaty

  • Versailles: 13 % of national territory, all colonies, 26% of coal, 75% of iron ore, 33 billion dollar war reparations, war guilt clause, army restricted to 100,000 (too small to counteract domestic uprisings)—harsh, but not harsh enough to render impotent forever

  • Considered betrayal of wilson’s 14 points

  • Implementation of versailles required german cooperation, especially disarmament

  • Reparations blamed for every economic crisis (unfairly)

  • Weimar republic crippled from birth: versailles+constitutionalproblems+economic crises

  • Proportional representation meant 60,000 votes=seat in parliament no matter how geographically scattered the votes

  • Party secretaries, not voters, would decide which politicians actually sat in parliament

  • Bewildering number of parties, coalition governments, decisive action especially during crises next to impossible, small and often extreme parties easily gained representation and their deputies enjoyed handsome state-paid salaries, free travel on trains and immunity from arrest

  • But this system was more a reflection than a cause of political and social division in Germany

  • President’s right to appoint anyone chancellor in absence of parliamentary majority and to grant chancellor dictatorial powers in emergency—designed to deal with crises


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • But this led to hitler’s ascension to power and ruling by decree

  • Huge inflation reduced value of german mark to a trillionth of its prewar value

  • People saw lifetime savings evaporate and money became worthless

  • Economic insecurity led to right and left wing extremism

  • Spartacist revolt seized power in bavariaapril 1919—3 week rule led to decade long hysterical fear of communism

  • Hitler joined DeutschesArbeitPartei in 1919, soon became indispensable as orator

  • Fuhrer of party and elimination of internal party democracy just by threatening to resign—turned it into nsdap or nazi to increase appeal to both nationalists and socialists

  • 1923 beer hall putsch in munich unsuccessful as local government and police didn’t remain passive—hitler imprisoned

  • Highly publicized trial used to denounce the november criminals, lightest possible sentence given to hitler

  • Prison gave time to reflect on tactics, wrote meinkampf

  • Hitler released in 1925—things had changed, more prosperity, new stable currency, unemployment and political extremism declining (dawes and young plan, stresseman’s cooperation, general economic upturn)

  • Hindenburg elected president—he was conservative monarchist war hero—conservatives were more willing to accept republic, but Hindenburg was on verge of senility in crucial year of 1932

  • Hitler realized coup not possible, power must be legally gotten. Acted rationally in restraining overanxious supporters

  • Growth of party 1925-29 very slow, party revenues very limited, partly due to ban on Hitler giving speeches

  • But this time was not wasted, hitler created or enlarged various subsidiary organizations—sturmabteilung, hitler youth, school children’s league, student league for uni students


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Various organizations for lawyers, physicians, women, peasants and industrial workers

  • Appealed to many different demographic groups—totalitarian mass party, state within state, place for everyone

  • Only party to appeal to voters across class lines aside from catholic center party

  • Party membership boomed with onslaught of depression—1.4 million unemployed mid 1929

  • Mid 1932 unemployment peaked at 6.2 million unemployed—50% of industrial workers

  • Nazi vote shot up—hitler spoke in semi-religious terms of renewing german unity, pride and greatness, promised whole new system of government not just change in government

  • “National socialism means peace,” even anti-semitism toned down

  • Numerous party rallies

  • German social democrats were moderate and democratic in practice but retained radical marxist vocabulary—alienated bourgeoisie

  • Social democrats didn’t offer practical solutions, lacked real political program, driven illegally from government by chancellor von papen, but didn’t resist

  • German communists ordered by Stalin not to collaborate with social democrats and to vote with nazis in reichstag on various issues

  • KPD benefitted from depression as well—served as bogeyman for nazi propaganda

  • Together with socialists, kpd had largest vote—nazies argued germans had only 2 options, communism or themselves

  • Conservative politicians like von papen assumed hitler could be controlled by conservative interests

  • Hindenburg appointed hitler as chancellor 1933, cabinet with nazi minority

  • Hitler immediately announced elections despite his promise not to, confident that nazi popularity and control of police would give absolute majority and allow him to override reichstag and president


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Week before election, reichstag fire—alleged communist conspiracy

  • Hitler was granted emergency powers, outlawed communist party, revoked constitutional civil liberties and ruled by decree

  • Enabling law passed for 4 years (never lifted) with help of catholic party

  • Six month long Gleichschaltung—elimination of all political parties, censorship of mass media, political opponents imprisoned, independent trade unions outlawed, federal states robbed of autonomy, purged high level civil service of jews and anti-nazis, destroyed independence of judiciary

  • SA became threat to security and stability—night of long knives in 1934—50 leaders executed

  • President hindenburg died august 1934—hitler now fuhrer, i.e. pres+chancellor, head of army, required all soldiers to swear oath of allegiance to him

  • Economy

  • Soviet Russia

  • Achilles heal was agriculture

  • Allowing peasants to confiscate lands of nobles only temporary expedient to gain power

  • Productivity declining in 1920s—small peasant farms less efficient

  • NEP an embarrassment to party

  • 1926-7 kulaks saw price of produce cut by 20%--most efficient farmers lost incentive to produce

  • 1928 prices paid to peasants not enough to cover cost of production

  • Collectivization would put crop under party control—peasants no longer able to withhold crop from market

  • Government could buy crop at artificially low prices, sell surplus—huge profits, needed to industrialize


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Attacking kulaks removed natural leaders

  • 250, 000 collective farms easier to monitor than 25 million small ones

  • 1st 5 year plan—called for collectivization—dekulakization—get rid of “rotten liberalism” and “bourgeois humanitarianism”

  • 10-12 million deported to labor camps (gulags)

  • End of 1931 famine in ukraine and Caucasus isthmus

  • Not due to small harvests but because of grain procuring policy

  • End of 1932 domestic passports introduced but denied to peasants

  • Ukrainians told there were “bourgeois nationalists” in their midst responsible for food shortages

  • Even mention of famine avoided—those who mentioned it, imprisoned/killed

  • Foreign visitors only allowed to see model collective farms and foreign journalists’ articles were censored before leaving or else their visas were taken away

  • Food relief not permitted to ukraine, ukrainian intelligentsia (especially authors) attacked

  • 1928-1933 grain production declined from index of 100 to 81.5

  • Local officials accused of causing problems—”dizzy with success”

  • End of 1934, 90% of sown acreage on 240000 collective farms—collectivization a failure because most productive peasants gone, industrial base too small to provide modern machinery, autonomy of management limited (couldn’t take initiatives to adjust to situation)

  • Inadequate resources, unrealistic quotas, hostile peasants—farm managers simply invented production figures

  • Only successful aspect was small private plots allowed per family—produced 21.5% of crop

  • Average citizen’s diet much worse than in 1928

  • 5 yr plan’s main focus was industry—unrealistically high targets, but 5yr time span looked long enough to make it seem achievable and short enough to make sacrifices seem temporary


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Genuine enthusiasm—plan had successful psychological impact

  • Trade unions lost right to strike and independence and collective bargaining—became government agencies to enforce policies

  • Shock brigade groups to set examples for other workers (stakhanovites)

  • On-the-job discipline enforced by terror

  • “wage equalization” under lenin denounced—payments for piecework and different salaries for skilled and unskilled workers

  • Extreme haste created chaos and inefficiency—dismissal of “bourgeois specialists”=loss of talent (later restored)

  • Slave labor wasted on nearly useless projects, e.g. white sea baltic canal

  • Stalin’s cry of overfulfill quotas complete nonsense—could only work with allotted resources

  • Hailed as a success a year early—second plan called for restoration of quality

  • 1929-41 growth by 1.5x, equal to germany and less than own growth under NEP

  • Lack of consumer goods

  • Fascist Italy

  • Private enterprise continued—little nationalization of property

  • Some state control—production in particular industries regulated, distribution, foreign trade, prices and wages

  • Supported heavy and basic industries—steel, electricity and chemicals

  • But never created complete integrated economic program

  • Public works projects—excavation of rome’s ruins, aroused pride and nationalism and created work, built avenue connecting coliseum to monument of victor emmanuel II, unifier of Italy—ideal for parades, provided workers with sense of community and identity with regime, cleaning up and improving ports and harbors, hydroelectric works, electrifying railway, aqueducts


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Trade unions instruments of government control—handled social security benefits, severance pay, but mainly source of employment for lower middle class bureacrats

  • Great depression—autarky, self-sufficiency, but generally counter-productive—new domestic substitute enterprises less efficient than foreign enterprise

  • Increase of wheat production reduced need to import cheap american/canadian grain, but also reduced acreage for vegetables, olives and fruit which were more suitable for climate—overall increase in cost of food

  • Government supported share cropping contracts and the homesteading of land-reclamation areas and virtually prohibited migration from rural locales

  • Corporativism—evolved from struggle among industrialists, unions, party and state. Designed to settle concrete problems from dissatisfied workers in industry, broadened answer to harsh individualism of capitalism and class warfare of marxism

  • 1934 employees and management in related industries brought together in 22 corporations, interests harmonized under joint auspices of labor courts

  • Each corporate to act as small parliament, with nominal powers to set wages and conditions of employment, attempt to revert to medieval guilds—each corporation had fascist officers from ministry of corporations

  • But big industrialists prevented meaningful implementation, so corporations had little authority and no autonomy. Meetings had academic character, any rules only implemented if approved by mussolini. Benefitted only fascist party members who got jobs and big business and landlords who no longer feared strikes

  • Class antagonisms not reduced, only pushed underground

  • Chamber of deputies abolished 1938, replaced by chamber of fasces and corporations, but could only make proposals, not pass legislation

  • No improvement for peasants, average size of landholdings declined, income worsened post‘29


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Growth rate had been higher during prewar and prefascist liberal era, but with great depression, did fairly well—unemployment partially alleviated by popular welfare relief for children and war veterans

  • Income fell by 10%, 1 million unemployed but compared favorable to other countries, partly because italy agricultural not industrial

  • Growth of industrial production even higher than in germany

  • Hitler

  • Limited economic program, but attacks on jewish capitalism, large department stores, mail order firms and consumer organizations—which only hurt proprietors of small family owned enterprises that supported hitler

  • But pragmatic enough to recognize that replacing jewish business by incompetent party people was unwise

  • Until 1937, jewish unemployment only 10%

  • Big business benefitted from regime as long as cooperated—hitler believed small number of large businesses easier to control, more productive and efficient and big businesses preferred Nazis to weimar’s high welfare benefits, strong trade unions and poor economic record

  • 1933 abolition of free trade unions

  • Unemployment wiped out till labor shortage in 1939, but wages less than 1929 level

  • Propaganda talked about nobility of honest labor and subsidiary nazi organizations provided sense of community

  • Fixed rent, heating and lighting costs declined, 8hr day, beauty of labor office, lawns and parks created near factories, lighting in factories improved—rooms painted, floors washed, space created.


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • 1935 labor pass Arbeitsbuchs introduce—information about training, employment history, family status—needed for job

  • By 1938, full employment meant average work week increased

  • Peasants lavished with praise, higher prices for farm products, reduced indebtedness, taxes and interests on loans

  • Limited success—1938-9, farm production meeting 80-83% of requirements compared to 68% in 1927-8

  • Industrial production rising by 90%

  • Public works projects—autobahns, canals, public buildings, bridges, grants issued to construction workers to renovate old buildings and create new housing

  • Deficit spending on unprecedented scale—work creation projects responsible for 25% of recovery. Unemployment eliminated 3x faster than in USA

  • Autobahns (though not conceived by nazis) less vulnerable to bombing than railway tracks but initial purpose was to relieve unemployment, bolster steel industries and construction and tourism. Didn’t cut through cities and compete with public transportation, efforts to make roads blend in with nature

  • 1936 4 yr economy plan—economy to be readied for war. But only added bureaucracy to economy—state and party officials, representatives of private industry, armed forces, SS and other nazi organizations all had say in economy now

  • No proper arrangement for allocation of raw materials and industrial investment still largely unplanned

  • Plan dictated what companies should produce, kind and level of investments, prices and wages and profit—proved inefficient

  • Efforts for autarky—low grade ore mined, substitute for coffee and cloth manufactured, synthetic rubber. Imports declined, but autarky not complete, standards of living suffered


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Growth rates didn’t match late german empire, and wages were only slightly higher than Weimar and consumer goods shortage (though slightly more plentiful than Weimar)

  • Other domestic policies:

  • Stalin

  • Government banned travel to west to prevent people from seeing affluence, severe restrictions of foreign visitors as well—carefully searched for “dangerous literature”—foreign newspapers banned, foreign radio broadcasts jammed by transmitters on borders

  • Department of culture and propaganda—dealt with education, press, propaganda and general culture

  • All books, magazines, films, poems, plays etc approved by government censors

  • For career in arts and culture, had to belong to union, wrong ideas expressed=expulsion from union, no work

  • Particularly intolerant of writers

  • Films glorified revolution and 5 year plans, and stalin

  • Labor unions subsidized tickets for theater, opera and ballet performances, provided vacation rest homes and arranged vacations, literacy classes, elementary and secondary education at factories and on site childcare centers

  • Party controlled all athletic and social activities

  • Teachers’ salaries raised, strict classroom discipline, respect for teachers. Uniforms—jumpers for girls, military style for boys—increase collectivism

  • Textbooks approved by commissariat of education

  • Illiteracy reduced—industrialization required educational system—free access to schools, 7 years compulsory


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • School attendance increased, adult illiteracy decreased by reducing workdays by 2 hours for illiterates with no loss of pay if attended school—39% reduce of illiteracy

  • Most advanced students even got living expenses paid but had to serve 5 years in government areas

  • Women benefited from increased access to higher education, held 44% of posts at universities but low pay and inadequate childcare services

  • Komsomol youth group for 15-23 year olds, sporting, cultural and social activities—played part in collectivization campaign—9 million members by 1939, eldest promoted nazi policies

  • Youngest children—little octobrists—sang patriotic songs, learned of depravity of religion

  • Young pioneers at age 9—played war games and helped illiterates read, sports, camping trips with campfire talks on lenin and the revolution

  • Clergy, religious buildings and organizations all regarded with hostility

  • Patriarch of russian orthodox church under house arrest when he became critical of regime

  • Confiscation of property and long prison sentences and executions of priests, monks, nuns—churches and monuments destroyed for building materials, 80% of village churches closed, printing of religious books, magazines newspapers forbidden

  • Religious teaching only allowed in private and not for over 18, anti-religious propaganda by komsomol and league of militant atheists, antireligious museums to reveal religious hoaxes. But an estimated 2/3 of rural population remained believers

  • Great purges in 1930s—aimed toward party members who at most verbally objected to stalin’s plans

  • Show trials and confessions to absurd allegations (“plotting to restore capitalism”)—preemptive strike against anyone with power base and independent thought

  • Following assassination of Kirov, NKVD rounded up old bolsheviks and those who knew of stalin’s minor role in the revolution, lenin’s testament and stalin’s failure of collectivization


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Higher officers more likely arrested

  • Purges a way of explaining collectivization failure—”wreckers” blamed—NKVD handsomely rewarded for efforts, so eager to find more traitors, denunciations common, many accusations to settle old scores and prove loyalty to party

  • Majority of union of writers shot or sent to gulags

  • Decimation of armed forces—top military and naval officers shot by the 100s, 3 out 5 marshals, 3 out of 4 generals, all 12 lieutenants and 60/67 corps commanders

  • Army lost 35,0000 men and half of officer corps

  • 850,000 members of communist party purged by 1939, 780,000 had been shot

  • 15 million gulag inmates

  • Loss of highly qualified people, replaced by careerists unwilling to take risks and no independent thought

  • Party now less important than police and state—deliberating bodies like central committee and politburo never met, platform for stalin to announce policies.

  • Mussolini

  • Not geographically isolated like russia, partially free press til 1925, foreign papers available

  • Allowed to travel abroad

  • Press moderated—only good news published, absence of crime reports made it seem like crime decreasing

  • Loudspeakers in main squares of towns to broadcast radio speeches by mussolini

  • Few writers/artists deported, more moderate view

  • But many intellectuals driven out or imprisoned

  • New schools built and old ones improved, minimum school leaving age raised and attendance strictly enforced


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • State expenditure on schools increased by 50%, textbooks had to be state approved

  • Taught to owe same loyalty to fascism as to god

  • School teachers made to take loyalty oath and had to be part of party

  • More emphasis on literature, history, latin

  • Indoctrination only more intense after 1929. late 30s emphasis on physical fitness and manual labor

  • Nationalism promoted but chauvinism, militarism and imperialism superficial at best in school

  • Introduction of anti-semitism in 1938, 200 teachers and professors lost their job

  • Opera NazionaleBalilla (ONB) included kids of all classes and sex between 6-18 years, but mostly middle class, avoided overt political indoctrination, more community feeling and obedience to authority, uniforms, slogans and patriotic rituals

  • Calisthenics and mass gym exercises—increased physical fitness and solidarity (good showing in berlinolympics)

  • Opera nazionaledopolavoro (OND) 5 million members by 1940, lower middle class, farmers and blue collar workers—sporting grounds, libraries, movie houses, theaters and orchestras—every town had dopolavoro clubhouse with small library and radio, sometimes athletic equipment, auditorium for films and plays, small travel agency

  • All activities at reduced rate and 50% discounts for train fares—genuinely voluntary membership, mostly non-political

  • Poor quality plays and concerts, but very popular

  • Policies on role of women, no birth control, abortion, pornography and anticommunism praised by vatican—religious holidays, crucifixes in schools, no open conflict between Church-State except over catholic youth groups in 1931


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Lateran accords of 1929—roman catholicism state religion, pope sovereign in vatican—92 million dollars in cash and bond given to pope, canon law enforced—ban on divorce and religious education compulsory. Parochial schools and catholic youth groups allowed. In exchange, goodwill of pope and country’s 24% catholics

  • Relations strained over 1931 issue of youth groups and anti-semitism in 1938, but otherwise peaceful coexistence

  • Blackshirtsquadristi beat up opponents, tortured leaders, but last real rampage in 1925

  • Secret police created to augment propaganda and consolidate regime

  • Political offenders sometimes tortured but rarely killed

  • Special tribunal handed down prison sentences to 17,000 people but mostlet off with just a warning

  • Political prisoners sent to small penal islands under controlled residence, often in disease infected villages

  • Only 29 italians executed for political crimes

  • 160,000 kept under surveillance

  • Not much opposition, mostly intellectuals living abroad. People feared early acts of terror in 1919-1925. ordinary people feared the authorities

  • 1938 campaign against italianjews—citizenship of foreign born jews revoked, jew students and teachers banned from public schools, no party membership, expelled from civil and military service positions, professional, cultural and academic associations. 10% of uni professors lost their jobs. Not allowed to own land or business with >100 employees. Campaign to purge jewish culture, especially avant-garde literature and textbooks by jewish authors. Mixed marriage forbidden. Very unpopular “defense of the race laws legislation”


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Hitler

  • Negative impact on education—curriculum made more practical, anti-intellectualism

  • History nazified—jews blamed for every disaster in german history. Geography and culture stressed and racial biology, population policy and physical education emphasized

  • Teachers part of party already so censorship of textbooks limited and haphazard

  • Anti-semitic policies: 18% of faculty dismissed from universities for being jewish or political opponents, remaining had to be part of national socialist association of university lecturers

  • Reduced no. of university students—especially young women. Only war broke anti-feminism out of necessity

  • Social sciences and economics seriously influenced, courses in psychology and physics suffered because mainly jewish faculty

  • Lots of newspapers, open to outsiders, but then nothing to hide

  • Hitler jugend in 1926 but nazi youth groups had existed since 1922. for 10-18 year olds. Less than 14 years old, jugendvolk for boys and jungmadel for girls. Teen girls—bund deutschermadel

  • Successful at breaking down social and intellectual distinctions between classes, non-nazi groups banned 1936

  • 1939 membership in youth groups for every healthy boy older than 9, competitive sports, paramilitary training for boys, girls made to be good wives and makeup.

  • War games, physical training, map reading, use of lethal weapons—recruiting grounds for SS and army, best army in the world created

  • Most loyal to hitler of all organisations

  • Kraft durch freude—55 million members by 1939, refreshing workers, fringe benefits, subsidized theater performances, concerts, art exhibitions, sports and hiking groups, social and folk dancing, films and adult education courses. Non-political


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Catholic clergy applauded bans on abortion, birth control, porn and venereal diseases, bolshevism, but nazis less successful in gaining catholic votes

  • Conciliate catholics by promising center party to uphold rights of the church, including denominational education, in exchange for center party’s vote for enabling act

  • Concordat 1933 granted independence to catholic religions and social organizations in exchange for vatican recognition of regime and renouncing political interference

  • But conflicts remained—some nationalists set up new church renouncing pacifism and old testament and promoting racial purity. German christians (liberal protestant clergy) alarmed, established emergency league and confessing church—supported traditional christianity and denied right of nazis to impose policies on all aspects, but didn’t do much more in protest

  • Still some of these were arrested and harassed and eventually denominational schools and youth groups were banned, sent many protestant and catholic clergy to concentration camps

  • But on the whole churches supported policies—war against russia was holy war, and anti-semitism was too much of a cultural norm

  • Rohm purge of 1934 (night of long knives)

  • Gestapo flooded with denunciations from citizens with grudges

  • Use of terror limited before 1938

  • 27,000 peacetime peak of prisoners, but not specifically jews—anti nazis, communists, social democrats

  • Early prisoners released in few weeks, majority of inmates in mid-30s were criminals, prostitutes, homosexuals, pimps, drunkards, beggars, “work shy” and jehova’s witnesses (refused to serve army)

  • Prewar camps designed to intimidate opposition but not unpopular, cleaned up lawlessness

  • Boycott of jewish business, doctors and lawyers in 1933 failed after just one day, but jewish background people excluded from civil service, including teachers, quota on university students


Consolidation of power soviet russia private citizens lost control of property claimed by state

  • Segregated schools

  • But jewish war veterans and those in business prior to ww1 were excluded, so many not covered by laws

  • Nuremberg laws 1935—jews deprived of citizenship and lost right to vote in general elections, but retained right to vote in own communal elections. Intermarriage forbidden. Ultraconservative jews even welcomed laws as a way of creating cultural autonomy

  • Severe persecution began 1938—hitler felt army strong enough to withstand international opinion, annexation of austria (more antisemitic)

  • Kristallnacht , identification stars and nationalization of jewish property and businesses


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