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Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Student-Athlete Career Situation Inventory (SACSI). Scott D. Sandstedt, Richard H. Cox, Starla Ivey, Matthew P. Martens, Gant Ward, S. Nicole Webber, Steve Portenga, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65202. Introduction.
Scott D. Sandstedt, Richard H. Cox, Starla Ivey, Matthew P. Martens, Gant Ward, S. Nicole Webber, Steve Portenga, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65202
1. Transition from sport can be a very traumatic experience for today’s collegiate student-athlete. The centrality of sport in their social, personal, financial, recreational, and vocational lives may make retirement from sports participation more problematic than for traditional workers (Ballie, 1993).
2. Few collegiate athletes make sufficient plans to prepare for career termination and may struggle with their transition from the role of athlete to non-athlete (Baillie, 1993; Mihovilovic, 1968).
3. Blann (1985) found that first and second-year male student-athletes from a sample of Division I and Division III schools had career plans that were not as well formulated as those of matched non-athletes.
4. Petipas, Danish, McKelvain, and Murphy (1990) suggest that many athletes feel that investing effort in the career development process would detract from their sport performance.
5. With all of the intrinsic benefits of sport participation, in addition to the time and energy demands of a student-athlete’s athletic environment (Martens & Lee, 1998; Petitpas & Champagne, 1988; Sowa & Gressard, 1983), it is conceivable to understand why career exploration and planning may not be a top priority for many of today’s student-athletes.
6. Despite such an awareness of the inadequacies concerning the level of career preparation for student-athletes, there have been very few studies where investigators have empirically investigated the attitudes, beliefs, and interests of student-athletes as they relate to vocational development and preparation.
7. Part of the reason for such a deficiency is due to the nonexistence of a sufficient instrument to reliably measure career development and preparation specific to student-athletes.
8. Researchers have utilized several inventories to measure athletes’ vocational development including the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI; Kennedy & Dimick, 1987), and the Career Development Inventory (CDI; Smallman & Sowa, 1996).
9. However, Heppner (2000) asserts that many of the existing measures of career development, maturity, transition, etc. are normed on populations that may not possess many of the same barriers to career development that are inherent within other specific populations or cultures, i.e. time and energy demands experienced by collegiate student-athletes.
Career situation specific to student-athletes is defined as the extent of one’s career development and preparation characterized by the sophistication of one’s vocational attitudes, beliefs, and interests that may be influenced by athletic participation in a university setting.
The Student-Athlete Career Situation Inventory (SACSI) is designed to measure the attitudes, beliefs, and interests associated with career outlook and preparation within a population of collegiate student-athletes while considering the developmental barriers to vocational development resulting from sport participation and the university athletic environment.
Five graduate students from a large mid-western university worked collaboratively to create the scale items by using:
3. From a larger cumulative list of items, questions were selected to be included on a final list of 41 items based on each question’s estimated ability to adequately measure the construct of student-athlete career situation as a whole, as agreed upon by each student and their research advisor.
4. Students revised each item on the final list to ensure the consistency of item presentation (e.g. length and wording) and to limit the potential for responses based on social desirability. Each student also incorporated suggestions for reverse graded items in an effort to encourage response validity.
5. In addition to item generation, the graduate students worked collaboratively to develop appropriate anchors for item responses.
1. To ensure that the values are within the expected range and that no items are omitted, minimum and maximum values for each variable were calculated.
2. To analyze the distribution of responses means, standard deviations, and ranges were computed for each variable.
3. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the dimensional structure of the items chosen to assess the career related attitudes, beliefs, and interests of student-athletes. Principal axis factoring was used to extract the factors followed by an oblique promax rotations to identify stable factor loadings for each item.
4. A scree plot was used to help determine which factors would be retained for rotation. Accordingly, identifiable factors were required to have eigenvalues greater than 1. In interpreting the rotated factor pattern, an item was acknowledged to load on a given factor if the factor loading was .40 or greater for a potential factor.
5. Coefficient alpha was calculated for both the SACSI as a whole and any sub-scales that correspond with identifiable factors to assess the internal consistency of the SACSI.