GreyWorks 2010 Transparency Governs the Grey Landscape - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Greyworks 2010 transparency governs the grey landscape l.jpg
1 / 51

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

GreyWorks 2010 Transparency Governs the Grey Landscape. MODULE THREE: Demand-side Grey Literature. Measures Demand-side Citations References Website logs User statistics Links Etcetera. Farace – General. Applications and Uses Examples: Problem solving Decision making

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

GreyWorks 2010 Transparency Governs the Grey Landscape

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

Greyworks 2010 transparency governs the grey landscape l.jpg

GreyWorks 2010Transparency Governs the Grey Landscape


Demand-side Grey Literature

Slide2 l.jpg



  • Citations

  • References

  • Website logs

  • User statistics

  • Links

  • Etcetera

Farace –


Slide3 l.jpg

Applications and Uses


  • Problem solving

  • Decision making

  • Policy development

  • Scholarly communication

  • Research and innovation

  • Product enhancement

  • Technology transfer

  • Etcetera

Farace –


Grey literature usage l.jpg

Grey Literature Usage

  • Respondents were asked to name 2 documents used in the last month that were important to their work.

    • Participants provided document titles and sources which we then located.

    • 59% of documents listed were Grey Literature.

    • Many thought they could find all Grey Literature via traditional online services.

Liddy et al., GL6 - Usage

On usage statistics l.jpg

On usage statistics

  • The big silence.

  • Confirms the DRIVER study 2007:

  • 70% of the repositories do log the statistical data on access but analysis and interpretation « in development » or « problematic ».

  • No public access to statistics but in some cases, information to authors (CCSD).

Schopfel et al., GL10 – Usage Stats

Advantages of including grey in a literature review l.jpg

Advantages of including ‘grey’ in a literature review

  • Access to wider variety of information

  • Reduces publication bias

  • Contain more local information- important for planning

  • Contain process information- important for policy makers

Knight et al., GL6 - Use

Advantages of including grey in a literature review7 l.jpg

Advantages of including ‘grey’ in a literature review

  • Reports not published in peer reviewed journals (e.g. UN, WHO, HTA)

  • Access to new research

  • World Wide Web (4-6 Billion web pages)

  • Contain valuable and unique information, which is not found elsewhere

Knight et al., GL6 - Use

Conclusion l.jpg


  • The identification of relevant studies in the grey literature and their inclusion in systematic reviews can be particularly time-consuming and difficult.

  • However, the inclusion of grey literature in systematic reviews will help to overcome some of the problems of publication bias and evidence for process and context

  • Aberdeen University is taking forward the development of the tools which can be used to review the grey literature in terms of best available evidence and evaluation mechanisms

Knight et al., GL6 - Use

96 6 use grey information l.jpg

Karst Information Portal




96.6% Use Grey Information


Theses/ Dissertations +



  • To the statement,

  • “Grey literature is a very important source of information to karst researchers …”

    • 70.9 % agree

Chavez et al., GL8 - Use

Top Four Grey Information Sources


Preservation access l.jpg

Karst Information Portal


Preservation & Access

Most Difficult Grey Information Types to Access

Where do you archive the grey information that you produce?

Personal Archiving Space

No Formal Archiving


Chavez et al., GL8 - Preservation


Slide11 l.jpg

96.6% Use Grey Information n=58

86.2% Proceedings

82.8% Trip/Cave Reports

81.0% Theses/Dissertations & Maps

89.3% Produce Grey Information n=56

80.8% Proceedings

76.9% Trip/Cave Reports

65.4% Images & Speeches/Invited Talked

Chavez et al.,

GL9 – Use and Production

Slide12 l.jpg

KIP & Grey Literature

A core function of KIP is to facilitate access to grey literature such as:

Audience for KIP:

  • Geologists & geographers

  • Land managers & land planners

  • Maps

  • Insurance companies & home buyers

  • Measurements of cave notes

  • Biologists & cave enthusiasts

  • Notes on subterranean wildlife

Chavez et al.,

GL9 – Access and Use

Slide13 l.jpg

Analysis of GL in the changing context (2)


Why is it important to raise the profile of GL?

Because grey literature is still useful…

GL is more likely to:

  • report negative results

  • discuss studies that concluded prematurely

  • offer a much more comprehensive picture of the state of knowledge for any topic

De Castro et al., GL8 - Use

Slide14 l.jpg

Which HEP information system do you use the most? High Energy Physics

… ?


GL9 - Use

Variations according to search l.jpg

Variations according to search


GL9 - Use

What feature is important in a hep information system l.jpg

What feature is important in a HEP information system?



Gentil, GL9 – User Demands

Conclusions l.jpg


  • What did we learn?

    • Community-driven systems answer the needs of the community.

    • Listen to the users – they know what they want!

    • Increased importance of a diversifying grey literature…

  • Full analysis still in progress – more coming soon!

  • What’s next:

    • Create a single information service for the entire community

    • Include new features

    • Survey your users!


GL9 – User Needs

Evidence based practice 5 essential steps in ebp l.jpg

Evidence Based Practice5 Essential Steps in EBP

  • Convert information needs into answerable questions

  • Track down best evidence to answer questions

  • Critically appraise evidence performance for its validity and usefulness

  • Apply results of the appraisal in clinical practice

  • Evaluate performance and outcomes

Gelfand, GL7 –

Evidence based Practice

Hierarchy of evidence l.jpg

Hierarchy of Evidence

  • Meta-Analysis

  • Systemic Review

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

  • Cohort Studies

  • Case Control Studies

  • Case Series / Reports

  • Basic Laboratory & Animal Research

Gelfand, GL7 –

Evidence based Practice

Slide20 l.jpg

Table 8. Expressions used by respondents to describe their experience in GL, ranking by frequency

  • AdjectiveFrequency

  • Interesting 16

  • Stimulating 10

  • Tiring 8

  • Useful 7

  • Demanding 4

  • Formative 3

  • Frustrating 3

  • Complex 2

  • Comprehensive 2

Di Cesare et al., GL8 - Users

Leading questions l.jpg

(13) The Average Net User should at least recognize the term Grey Literature

Leading Questions

Boekhorst et al., GL6 – Users

Slide22 l.jpg

Comparative Data

Survey Data 2004 with a control population from the Author Survey 2005

Farace et al., GL7 –


Slide23 l.jpg

Getting to the R&D Results

  • The Surface Web is accessible to popular search engines such as Google.

  • But less than 1% of government R&D results are currently accessible to crawlers.

Slide compliments of Walt Warnick

Carroll, GL8 - Access

What is missing l.jpg

What is missing?

  • Governmental reports

  • Funding body reports

  • Subject population materials


GL10 – Access (Development Studies)

Possible reasons for lack of disclosure l.jpg

Possible reasons for lack of disclosure

  • Competition for funding dollars

  • Confidentiality of client records

  • Fear of reprisal

  • Lack of expertise in web programming


GL10 – Access (Development Studies)

Web access to grey literature l.jpg

Web access to grey literature


GL9 – Access

Access to full text l.jpg

Access to full text

Schopfel et al.,

GL10 – Access (full-text)

Freedom of information l.jpg

Freedom of Information

  • Mandatory FOI publication schemes provide an inventory of grey content

  • Police work requires well-organised records and this should permit retrieval in response to enquiries from the public

  • FOI enquiries received are in addition to high volumes of press enquiries

  • FOI enquiries have produced some ‘unwilling’ revelations from police, but also some information that is less revealing.

Sturges et al.,

GL9 – Access and Retrieval

Some preliminary results l.jpg

Some preliminary results


  • Decrease of supply requests

  • Open access: CNRC serials

  • Open access: institutional repository

  • Integrated, partnership-based approach

  • Change of acquisition policy?

Boukacem et al., GL7 – Document Delivery

Some preliminary results30 l.jpg

Some preliminary results


  • Decrease of supply requests

  • Open access: CNRS strategic policy

  • Open access: institutional repository, portals

  • Open access: LARA, e-publishing, conferences

  • Change of acquisition policy?

Boukacem et al., GL7 – Document Delivery

Conclusions31 l.jpg


  • Search engines for grey literature are being widely deployed and represent a central information service in scholarly communication

  • Institutional repositories gain momentum and become dominant over disciplinary repositories

  • Standardized frameworks for distributed and federated document processing have been established

Vesely et al., (CERN)

GL5 - Repository

Slide32 l.jpg

(14) GL Collections are beter managed by centralized repositories…

The Document Level

Boekhorst et al., GL6 – Repositories

More definitions l.jpg

More Definitions

Institutional Repositories

Set of services that a university offers to the members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institutions and its community members.”

Gelfand, GL6 - Repositories

Faculty benefits l.jpg

Faculty Benefits

  • Diminished Isolation

  • Shared Purpose & Cooperation

  • Increased Curricular Circulation

  • Fresh Approach to One's Discipline

  • Increased Satisfaction with Students' Learning

Gelfand, GL6 - Repositories

Selective repository benefits l.jpg

Selective Repository Benefits

  • Free to contribute for all UC affiliates

  • Promising alternative

  • Increased visibility

  • Usage reports

  • eMail notification

  • Permanence

  • Global accessibility

  • Ability to upload associated content

Gelfand, GL6 - Repositories

Long standing and ongoing issues l.jpg

Long Standing and Ongoing Issues

  • Transcience of grey literature

  • Maturation of the repository

  • Timely publishing

  • Access

  • Standards

  • Multiple formats

Gelfand, GL6 - Repositories

Institutional repositories challenges l.jpg

Institutional Repositories: Challenges

  • Difficult to convince researchers of benefits of institutional repositories

    • Consequent lack of interest in depositing materials, even if they will be managed by others

  • Will take further evaluation to determine if institutional repositories reach full potential

  • For now, coverage of grey literature in institutional repositories is encouraging

Banks, GL7 - Repositories

Importance of grey lit from public health ngos l.jpg

Importance of Grey Lit from Public Health NGOs

  • NGOs and their information products are key to public health in developing countries

  • Grey lit from NGOs is often difficult to find

Pakistan Healthcare Facilities

Crowe et al.,

GL7 – Repository (NGO Publications)

Possible solution repository l.jpg

Possible Solution: Repository

  • Digital collection that captures and preserves the intellectual output of an institution, agency or organization

  • Benefits

    • Data collection and coordination

    • Could support the building of health capacity in developing countries

    • Knowledge management tool for NGOs

Crowe et al., GL7 - Repository

Conclusion40 l.jpg


  • Grey lit from NGOs is a vital component of public health and medical care information, particularly in developing countries

  • Public health NGOs would benefit

    by having one or more repositories

    of grey literature

  • Relevant repository models exist

  • There are significant barriers and challenges

  • There are significant benefits to public health research community and to people world-wide

Crowe et al., GL7 - Repository

Role of the institutional repository l.jpg

Role of the institutional repository

  • The IR is a support for integration

    • A central point within the organisation for literature and data

    • Stores multiple manifestations for the different parts of the process

    • Brings clarity to work and version relationships

    • GL can be recorded and retrieved according to accurate and up to date personnel, project and business unit structure

  • IR integrated as part of the institutional memory

Lambert et al., GL7 - Repository

A little less grey l.jpg

A Little Less Grey?

1990: 67% of health sciences journals cite grey literature

Alberani V, De Castro Pietrangeli P, Mazza AM. The use of grey literature in health sciences: a preliminary survey. Bull Med Libr Assoc. 1990 Oct;78(4):358-63.

2004: 85% of health policy journal articles cite grey literature

2004: 61% of think tank reports cite journal articles

Dunn, GL6 - Citations

Slide43 l.jpg

Triangle of Stakeholders

Schopfel et al., GL6 - Citations

Slide44 l.jpg

Grey versus Commercial

A Comparison of Standard and Hyperlinked Citations

Schopfel et al., GL6 - Citations

Slide45 l.jpg

Language of Cited Documents and Citing Authors

Schopfel et al., GL6 - Citations

Slide46 l.jpg

Top Five “Types of Publications”

Schopfel et al., GL6 - Citations

Slide47 l.jpg

Guidelines for GL Citations

  • General

  • All conference papers should contain references

  • Standardization should be maintained among the citations provided

  • The more complete and accurate a citation, the more guarantee of a paper´s content and subsequent review


  • Endnotes are preferred and should be numbered

  • Hyperlink need the accompanying name of resource and date;a simple URL is not acceptable

  • If the citation is to a corporate author, the acronym takes precedence

  • If the document type is known, it should be stated at the close of a citation

  • If a citation is revised and refers to an edited and/or abridged work,the original (re)source should also be mentioned.

Schopfel et al., GL6 - Citations

Citations to gomc publications gulf of maine council on the marine environment l.jpg

Citations to GOMC PublicationsGulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment

MacDonald et al.,

GL8 - Citations

Slide49 l.jpg

MacDonald et al.,

GL8 - Citations

Slide50 l.jpg

MacDonald et al., GL8 - Citations

Conclusions51 l.jpg

  • visibility of GL both as cited and citing documents

  • GL is evidently part of core papers

  • possibility of reconstructing the document life-cycle: from GL to conventional literature


Google Scholar

Citation analysis

Differences between GL and conventional literature tend to disappear ….

Citation counts, citations over time, immediacy impact, self-citations

  • Highly cited GL receives more citations by GL documents and viceversa

  • GL receives a higher number of citations in the first 5 years

  • Language

Some typical characteristics of GL can be still noticed

Di Cesare et al., GL9 - Citations

  • Login