8. Human Population. Age structure: Age pyramids. Canada (a) shows a balanced age structure, while Madagascar’s population growth (b) is 9 times faster. Age structure: “Graying populations”. China’s aging population will mean fewer working-age citizens to finance social services for retirees.
Canada (a) shows a balanced age structure, while Madagascar’s population growth (b) is 9 times faster.
China’s aging population will mean fewer working-age citizens to finance social services for retirees.
The United States’ “baby boom” is evident in age bracket 40–50. U.S. age structure will change as baby boomers grow older.
Population growth depends on rates of birth, death, immigration, and emigration.
(birth rate + immigration rate)
– (death rate + emigration rate)
= population growth rate
Immigration and emigration play large roles today.
Refugees from the 1994 Rwandan genocide endured great hardship, and deforested large areas near refugee camps.
China’s rate has fallen with fertility rates. It now takes the population 4 times as long to double as it did 25 years ago.
The annual growth rate of the world population has declined since the 1960s.
(But the population size is still rising!)
African nations have the highest TFRs.
European nations have the lowest TFRs.
The demographic transition consists of several stages:
Bangladesh reduced TFR from 7.1 to 4.6 in 25 years, and is at 3.0 today.
Family planning, education, and outreach were responsible.
Family planning, health care, and reproductive education can lower TFRs.
The Matlab Project provided visits from local women offering counseling, education, and free contraceptives.
Women are vastly under represented in positions of political power. In national legislatures, women make up at best 45% of seats, and in some countries, 0%.
98% of the next billion people born will live in developing nations.
Population growth can lead to environmental degradation.
Overpopulation in Africa’s Sahel region has led to overgrazing of semi-arid lands.
Poverty can lead to environmental degradation…
wealth and resource consumption can produce even more severe and far-reaching environmental impacts.
The cumulative amount of Earth’s surface area required to provide the raw materials a person or a population consumes, and then to dispose of or recycle the waste that is produced.
Scientists have calculated the global ecological footprint now exceeds what the Earth can bear in the long run.
AIDS cases are increasing rapidly worldwide.
This raises the question: