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International Flexible Education Symposium. Next generation Pedagogies and Technologies. Terry Anderson, Professor & Canada Research Chair in Distance Education. Introduction. Terry Anderson’s CV in Wordle Tag Cloud. Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada.

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Next generation pedagogies and technologies

International Flexible Education Symposium

Next generation Pedagogies and Technologies

Terry Anderson, Professor &

Canada Research Chair in

Distance Education


Introduction
Introduction

Terry Anderson’s CV in Wordle Tag Cloud


Athabasca university alberta canada
Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada

Fastest growing university in Canada

34,000 students, 700 courses

100% distance education

Graduate and Undergraduate programs

Master & Doctorate – Distance Education

Only USA Accredited University in Canada

* Athabasca University

*Athabasca

University






Do you have to be an aussie to understand flexible learning
Do you Have to be an Aussie to Understand Flexible Learning??

  • Flexible learning is a set of educational philosophies and systems, concerned with providing learners with increased choice, convenience, and personalisation to suit the learneren.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flexible_Learning

  • An approach which allows for the adoption of a range of learning strategies in a variety of learning environments to cater for differences in learning styles, learning interests and needs, and variations in learning opportunities and; Approaches to teaching and learning which are learner-centred, free up the place, time and method for learning and teaching, and use appropriate technologies in a networked environment.www.usq.edu.au/planstats/Docs/GlossaryTerms.doc

  • Learning characterised by a mixed mode of delivery and assessment of instructional material.www.calendar.auckland.ac.nz/information/glossary.html

  • Flexible learning, which includes e-learning, is about the learner deciding what, where, when and how they learnwww.flexiblelearning.net.au/aboutus/jargonbuster.htm

Costello confused about 'confused' Rudd


Overview
Overview Learning??

  • Technological Determinism in Flexible Learning

  • Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy

  • What do our students say about new technologies and learning activities?

  • A Connectivist future for formal learning


Values
Values Learning??

  • We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience.

  • Student control and freedom is integral to 21st Century life-long education and learning.

  • Education for elites is not sufficient for planetary survival


You can t have open and flexible learning without technology
You can’t have Open and Flexible Learning without Technology

The Man with the Magic Lantern,

a tribute to educator Ned Corbett


Educators reactions to technology determinism
Educators reactions to technology determinism Technology

  • Students today can’t prepare bark to calculate their problems. They depend on their slates which are more expensive. What will they do when their slate is dropped and it breaks? They will be unable to write!”Teachers Conference, 1703

  • From Thornburg, David. (1992) Edutrends 2010: Restructuring, Technology, and the Future of Education


  • From Thornburg, David. (1992) Edutrends 2010: Restructuring, Technology, and the Future of Education


  • From Thornburg, David. (1992) Edutrends 2010: Restructuring, Technology, and the Future of Education


  • From Thornburg, David. (1992) Edutrends 2010: Restructuring, Technology, and the Future of Education


Students today depend upon these expensive fountain pens. They can no longer write with a straight pen and nib (not to mention sharpening their own quills). We parents must not allow them to wallow in such luxury to the detriment of learning how to cope in the real business world, which is not so extravagant.”PTA Gazette, 1941

  • From Thornburg, David. (1992) Edutrends 2010: Restructuring, Technology, and the Future of Education


  • From Thornburg, David. (1992) Edutrends 2010: Restructuring, Technology, and the Future of Education



But social construction allows us to co determine real use
But Social Construction Allows us to Co-Determine Real Use era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998

  • Interpretative Flexibility

    • each technological artifact has different meanings and interpretations

  • Relevant Social Groups

    • many subgroups can be delineated

  • Design Flexibility

    • A design is only a single point in the large field of technical possibilities

  • Problems and Conflicts

    • Different interpretations often give rise to conflicts between criteria that are hard to resolve technologically – stimulating solution resolutions

      • (Wikipedia, Sept, 2009)


Three generations of flexible education pedagogies
Three Generations of Flexible Education Pedagogies era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998

  • Behaviourist/Cognitive – Correspondence, Self Paced, Televised courses

  • Constructivist – Paced online and blended programs

  • Connectivist – Flexible learning future

Image by Synthia SAINT JAMES


Behavioural cognitive pedagogies
Behavioural era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998/Cognitive Pedagogies

  • “tell ‘em what you’re gonna tell ‘em,

  • tell ‘em

  • then tell ‘em what you told ‘em”


Gagne s events of instruction 1965
Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965) era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998

  • Gain learners' attention

  • Inform learner of objectives

  • Stimulate recall of previous information

  • Present stimulus material

  • Provide learner guidance

  • Elicit performance

  • Provide Feedback

  • Assess performance

  • Enhance transfer opportunities


Enhanced by the cognitive revolution
Enhanced by the “cognitive revolution” era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998

  • Chunking

  • Cognitive Load

  • Working Memory

  • Multiple Representations

  • Split-attention effect

  • Variability Effect

  • Multi-media effect

    • (Sorden, 2005)


Behaviourist cognitive technologies
Behaviourist era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998/Cognitive technologies


New content providers itune u
New Content Providers - era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998ITune U

  • But iTunes is not simply a repository of more than 8 million songs, audio books, videos and 70,000 or so iPhone applications.

  • It also has the world's largest, constantly available, free educational resource — iTunesU.


New competitors
New Competitors era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998

“The teaching staff mainly consists of hired part-time lecturers

who are still at the very entrance level to an academic career.”

eLearning in the USA: The Standard? The Benchmark? Rolf Schulmeister 2004


New information competitors
New Information Competitors era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998

  • Publishers as full meal deal providers

    • Web sites; mobile quizzes, audio and video podcasts, interviews, online and mobile versions, Powerpoint slides, testing

  • Professional & Academic

    • full service web sites


Individuals as free tutors
Individuals as free tutors era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998

  • http://www.khanacademy.org/

See calculus derivatives: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rAof9Ld5sOg


The end of content scarcity
The End of Content Scarcity era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998

  • Massive Global decrease in costs, complexity, convenience and access


Who succeeds at independent study
Who Succeeds at Independent Study era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998

  • Swedish study of flexible and open enrollment students:

  • “The result shows that the most important predictors of academic success in the course is an achievement-oriented approach to learning. The second most important predictor is expectation of the learning process as an individual activity” Ollssun, 2007


Pedagogical end of the line
Pedagogical end of the line?? era at all, but a regressive trend, towards the rather old era of mass production, standardization and purely commercial interests.” David Noble, 1998

  • “programs that affect daily teaching practices and students interactions have more promise that those emphasizing textbooks or technology alone." Slavin, Lake & Groff, 2009 p. 839



2 constructivist pedagogy of flexible education
2. Constructivist Pedagogy of with self-learning resources and opportunities?Flexible Education

  • new knowledge is built upon the foundation of previous learning,

  • the importance of context

  • Errors, contradictions useful

  • learning as an active rather than passive process,

  • Focus on meta-cognition and evaluation as a means to develop learners capacity to assess their own learning

  • learning environment should be learner-centered

  • the importance of multiple perspectives - groups

  • Need for knowledge to be subject to social discussion, validation and application in real world contexts

    • (from (Honebein, 1996; Jonassen, 1991; Kanuka & Anderson, 1999)


2 constructivist pedagogy of flexible education1
2. Constructivist Pedagogy of with self-learning resources and opportunities?Flexible Education

Image from Constructivism in the library


Where does effective learning happen
Where does Effective learning Happen? with self-learning resources and opportunities?

  • “learning as located in the contexts and relationships, rather than merely in the minds of individuals”

    • Greenhow, Robelia, & Hughes, (2009)

  • The Context of the our age is online


Assessing students using constructivist learning
Assessing students using Constructivist Learning with self-learning resources and opportunities?

  • What is important is the process of knowledge acquisition, not any product or observable behavior. Jonassen, 1991


Constructivist ofl is the mainstream of e learning today
Constructivist OFL is the mainstream of “ with self-learning resources and opportunities?e-learning” today

  • Paced, aligning with institutional administrative systems

  • LMS designed for teacher directed, constructivist teaching/learning

  • Little or no persistence beyond the course level

  • Problems with scalability (the 30 student cohort – max!)


Constructivist evaluation
Constructivist Evaluation with self-learning resources and opportunities?

  • the frequency with which students participate in activities that represent effective educational practice, is a meaningful proxy for collegiate quality and, therefore, by extension, quality of education.

  • What are effective practices?

    • Level of academic challenge

    • Active and collaborative learning

    • Student-faculty interaction

    • Enriching educational experiences

    • Supportive social interaction. (National Survey of Student Engagement, 2003)

  • Emphasis on process, rather than outputs


Jonassen with self-learning resources and opportunities? 1992


Taxonomy of the many a conceptual model dron and anderson 2007
Taxonomy of the ‘Many with self-learning resources and opportunities?’ – A Conceptual ModelDron and Anderson, 2007

Group

Conscious membership

Leadership and organization

Cohorts and paced

Rules and guidelines

Access and privacy controls

Focused and often time limited

May be blended F2F

Metaphor :

Virtual classroom


Formal learning and groups
Formal Learning and with self-learning resources and opportunities?Groups

Garrison and Anderson, 2001

  • Long history of research and study

  • Established sets of tools

    • Classrooms,

    • VLEs

    • Synchronous (F2F, video & net conferencing)

    • Email

  • Need to develop face to face, mediated and blended group learning skills


Critical tools for group learning environments
Critical Tools for with self-learning resources and opportunities?Group Learning Environments

  • Collaborative tools

    • Document creation, management, versioning

    • Time lines, calendars,

    • Strong notifications

  • Security, trust

    • hosting on institutional space?

    • Behind firewalls, away from search engines

  • Decision making and project management tools

  • Synchronous and asynchronous conversations/meetings


Why groups
Why Groups? with self-learning resources and opportunities?

  • Students who learn in small groups generally demonstrate greater academic achievement, express more favorable attitudes toward learning, and persist …

  • small-group learning may have particularly large effects on the academic achievement of members of underrepresented groups and the learning-related attitudes of women and preservice teachers. Springer, L., Stanne, M., & Donovan, S. (1999) P.42


Impact mean effect size of cooperative versus individualistic learning contexts
Impact (Mean effect size) of Cooperative versus Individualistic Learning contexts

From Johnson and Johnson (1989). Cooperation and competition. Theory and research


Cohort communities of practice
Cohort Communities of Practice Individualistic Learning contexts

  • Wenger’s ideas of Community of Practice

    • mutual engagement – synchronous and notification tools

    • joint enterprise – collaborative projects

    • a shared repertoire – common tools, LMS, IM and doc sharing


Problems with groups
Problems with Groups Individualistic Learning contexts

Relationships

Paulsen (1993)

Law of Cooperative Freedom

Restrictions in time, space, pace, & relationship - NOT OPEN

Often overly confined by leader expectation and institutional curriculum control

Usually Isolated from the authentic world of practice

“low tolerance of internal difference, sexist and ethicized regulation, high demand for obedience to its norms and exclusionary practices.” Cousin & Deepwell 2005

“Pathological politeness” and fear of debate

Group think (Baron, 2005)

Poor preparation for Lifelong Learning beyond the course



Third de pedagogy based on connectivist pedagogy
Third DE Pedagogy based on of learning.Connectivist Pedagogy

  • Learning is building networks of information, contacts and resources that are applied to real problems.


Eight core principles of connectivism siemens 2004
Eight core principles of of learning.Connectivism:Siemens (2004)

  • Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.

  • Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.

  • Learning may reside in non-human appliances.

  • Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known.

  • Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.

  • Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.

  • Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.

  • Decision-making is itself a learning process.


Connectivist pedagogy technologies
Connectivist of learning. Pedagogy Technologies

  • Individual resources (especially OERS) +_

  • Groups +

  • Networks +

  • Collectives


Group of learning.

Network

Shared interest/practice

Fluid membership

Friends of friends

Reputation and altruism driven

Emergent norms, structures

Activity ebbs and flows

Rarely F2F

Metaphor: Virtual Community of Practice


Networks add diversity to learning
Networks Add diversity to learning of learning.

“People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas” Burt, 2005, p. 90


Communities of practice
Communities of Practice of learning.

Networks

Distributed

Share common interest

Self organizing

Open

No expectation of meeting or even knowing all members of the Network

Little expectation of reciprocity

Contribute for social capital, altruism and a sense of improving the world/practice through contribution

(Brown and Duguid, 2001)


Blog rubric jones magill 2003
Blog Rubric of learning.(Jones & Magill, 2003)

Ed-blogs: the use of weblogs in

learning, teaching and assessment


  • Students not informed? of learning.

    • “We find little to no relationship between online privacy concerns and information disclosure on social network sites.”

  • Students Cope:

    • Students manage unwanted audience concerns by adjusting profile visibility and using nicknames, but not by restricting the information within the profile.

    • Mechanisms analogous to boundary regulation in physical space, like walls, locks and doors, are favored;

    • little adaptation is made to the Internet's key features of

      • persistence,

      • searchability, and

      • cross-indexability.

    • Zeynep, T. (2008). Can You See Me Now? Audience and Disclosure Regulation in Online Social Network Sites.


Connectivism connects formal and informal
Connectivism of learning. Connects Formal and Informal

  • (Selwyn, 2009) examined the log activity of over 900 UK undergraduates to identify their use of Facebook appears to

  • “provide a ready space where the 'role conflict' that students often experience in their relationships with university work, teaching staff, academic conventions and expectations can be worked through in a relatively closed 'backstage' area.

  • So rather than enhancing directly participation in formal learning, the social networking services to help learners develop, reflect upon and share their identify grow and conflicts.” (Selwyn, 2009)

  • “positive relationships between intensity of Facebook use and students' life satisfaction, social trust, civic engagement, and political participation” Ellison Steinfield & Lampe 2007.


Group of learning.

Network

Collective

‘Aggregated other’

Unconscious ‘wisdom of crowds’

Stigmergic aggregation

Algorithmic rules

Augmentation and annotation

More used, more useful

Data Mining

Never F2F

Metaphor:

Wisdom of Crowds


Formal education and collectives
Formal Education and of learning.Collectives

“a kind of cyber-organism, formed from people linked algorithmically…it grows through the aggregation of Individual, Group and Networked activities” Dron & Anderson, 2007

“They follow not the logic of the network but of the set. They are aggregations that appear in some ways as a single entity” Dron & Anderson, 2009.On the Design of Collective Applications

  • Collectives used to aggregate, then filter, compare, contrast and recommend.

  • Personal and collaborative search and filter for learning

  • Allows discovery and validation of norms, values, opinion and “ways of understanding”

  • Educational semantic web


Connectivist learning as trace mining
Connectivist of learning. Learning as Trace Mining

  • We leave traces as we learn and use the Net

  • How can we use these traces to improve learning?

  • Can the crowd learn to teach? (Dron & Anderson, 2009)


Collective tools
Collective Tools of learning.

Crowd Sourcing


Connectivist technology examples at athabasca
Connectivist of learning. Technology Examples at Athabasca

  • Elgg - Me2U.athabasca.ca – Social networking, persistence

  • Easy M-Cast (Podcast, vidoecasts, screen casts)

  • Tutor “office hours” & recorded via Elluminate

  • Presence in immersive worlds ie Second Life,

  • University related groups on FaceBook

  • Students RateMyProfessor


Text of learning.

Text

Stepanyan, Mather & Payne, 2007


Boundary controls in elgg
Boundary Controls in of learning.Elgg


Connectivist content production models from production to produsage axel bruns 2008
Connectivist of learning. content production Models- From production to produsage - Axel Bruns 2008

  • Users become active participants in the production of artifacts:

  • Examples:

    • Open source movement

    • Wikipedia

    • Citizen journalism (blogs)

    • Immersive worlds

    • Distributed creativity - music, video, Flickr


University of the people 2009 tuition free connectivist education
University of the People 2009 of learning.Tuition Free, Connectivist Education?

Using the power of peer learning and cooperation



N of learning. = 820

Draft Results, AU Unpaced Learners Social Software Survey, Anderson Sept 2009


N of learning.= 621

Draft Results, AU Unpaced Learners Social Software Survey, Anderson Sept 2009


Draft Results, AU of learning.Unpaced Learners Social Software Survey,

Anderson, Sept 2009.


Draft Results, AU of learning.Unpaced Learners Social Software Survey,

Anderson, Sept 2009.


25.12% of learning.

N = 820

Draft Results, AU Unpaced Learners Social Software Survey,

Anderson, Sept 2009.


N of learning. = 820

Draft Results, AU Unpaced Learners Social Software Survey,

Anderson, Sept 2009.


47.93% of learning.

Draft Results, AU Unpaced Learners Social Software Survey,

Anderson, Sept 2009.


6.59% of learning.

61.95%

31.47%

Draft Results, AU Unpaced Learners Social Software Survey,

Anderson, Sept 2009.


Draft Results, AU of learning.Unpaced Learners Social Software Survey,

Anderson, Sept 2009.


Survey conclusions
Survey Conclusions of learning.

  • We have a very hetrogeneous population of net users and non users

  • Many of our learners are “don’t know” about web 2.0 tool use in formal education


Challenges of moving to connectivist pedagogy
Challenges of Moving to of learning.Connectivist Pedagogy

  • Personal competence, literacy and tools

  • Crystallized ways of thinking about our educational models

  • Resolving our own sense of privacy and Net Presence


Open Net of learning.

Research/Community Networks

OERs, YouTUBE

MY AU

Login

Discovery

Read & Comment rights

Passwords

AlFresco

CMS

Course Development

OERs

Open Athabasca

E-Portfolios

Profiles

Groups/Networks

Bookmark Collections

Blogs

Athabasca University

Sample

Course units

ELGG

Moodle

AUspace

Single Sign on

Library

Media lab

Registry

CIDER

Secondlife campus


Shameless non commercial ad
Shameless, Non Commercial AD of learning.

Upcoming Emerging Technologies in DE edited

by George Veletsiano

www.irrodl.org


Conclusion
Conclusion of learning.

  • Behavioural/Cognitive models are at economic and pedagogical dead end for most forms of higher education

  • Constructivist models seem, OK for cohort groups, but problems with scale, isolation and dependency

  • Connectivist models and tools are flexible learning’s future

  • All of us need to develop our personal learning networks and net presence


"He who asks a question is a fool for five minutes; of learning. he who does not ask a question remains a fool forever.”Chinese Proverb

Your comments and questions most welcomed!

Terry Anderson [email protected]

http://cde.athabascau.ca/faculty/terrya.php

Blog: terrya.edublogs.org


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