Malware spyware and viruses
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Malware, Spyware, and Viruses. By: Anthony Bosnak. Overview. Malware How Antivirus Programs Work Future Threats. Malware. General misconception among people Malware = “malicious software” Malware is any kind of unwanted software that is installed without your consent on your computer.

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Malware spyware and viruses

Malware, Spyware, and Viruses

By: Anthony Bosnak


Overview

Overview

  • Malware

  • How Antivirus Programs Work

  • Future Threats


Malware

Malware

  • General misconception among people

  • Malware = “malicious software”

  • Malware is any kind of unwanted software that is installed without your consent on your computer.

  • Viruses, worms, Trojan horses, bombs, spyware, adware are subgroups of malware.


Viruses

Viruses

  • A virus tries to infect a carrier, which in turn relies on the carrier to spread the virus around.

  • A computer virus is a program that can replicate itself and spread from one computer to another.


Viruses cont

Viruses cont.

  • Direct infection: virus can infect files every time a user opens that specific infected program, document or file.

  • Fast Infection: is when a virus infects any file that is accessed by the program that is infected.

  • Slow infection: is when the virus infects any new or modified program, file or document.

    • Great way to trick a antivirus program!


Viruses cont1

Viruses cont.

  • Sparse Infection: is the process of randomly infecting files, etc. on the computer.

  • RAM-resident infection: is when the infection buries itself in your computer’s random access memory.

  • Video:Hippi Virus + Cascade Virus


Bombs

Bombs

  • ANSI Bombs: MS-DOS days

    • More of a joke malware, than anything else.

    • Change code in ANSI.SYS file, which calls a driver that displays colors and graphics.

    • One feature is keyboard macros. So the bomb would remap common keys the user would press.

    • Most of the ANSI bombs would be disguised as a batch file to be run in the MS-DOS menu.


Example code

Example Code

  • ESC[99; “format c:”;13p

  • ESC[66; “format c:”13p

  • This code remaps the letter C and c. Every time the user presses C or c it tries to reformat the hard drive. The only problem with this is the computer asks, “Do you really want to reformat drive C: (Y/N)?” Most users then press N or n for No. So the hacker remaps the Y and N keys.

  • ESC[110; 121;13p

  • ESC[78;89;13p

  • When the user now presses the N or n key it will actually make the user press Y or y; and vice versa.


Bombs cont

Bombs cont.

  • Logic Bombs: is programming code that is designed to execute or explode when a certain condition is reached.

    • Most the time it goes off when a certain time is reached or a program fails to execute. But it these bombs wait for a triggered event to happen.

    • Most common use of this is in the financial/business world.

    • Most IT employees call this the disgruntled employee syndrome.


Trojans

Trojans

  • Trojan horse: is a program or software designed to look like a useful or legitimate file.

  • Once the program is installed and opened it steals information or deletes data.

  • Trojan horses compared to other types of malware is that it usually runs only once and then is done functioning.


Trojans cont

Trojans cont.

  • Some create back-door effects

  • Another distribution of Trojans is by infecting a server that hosts websites.

  • Downfall of Trojans: very reliant on the user.

  • Video Example: NeturalZlob Trojan


Worms

Worms

  • Worms and viruses get interchanged commonly in the media.

  • In reality a worm is more dangerous than a virus.

  • User Propagation vs. Self Propagation

  • Worm is designed to replicate itself and disperse throughout the user’s network.

  • Email Worms and Internet Worms are the two most common worm.


Email worm

Email Worm

  • Email worm goes into a user’s contact/address book and chooses every user in that contact list.

  • It then copies itself and puts itself into an attachment; then the user will open the attachment and the process will start over again!

  • Video Example: I LOVE YOU WORM


Internet worms

Internet Worms

  • A internet worm is designed to be conspicuous to the user.

  • The worms scans the computer for open internet ports that the worm can download itself into the computer.

  • Once inside the computer the worms scans the internet to infect more computers.


Adware and spyware

Adware and Spyware

  • Adware is a type of malware designed to display advertisements in the user’s software.

  • They can be designed to be harmless or harmful; the adware gathers information on what the user searches the World Wide Web for.

  • With this gathered information it displays ads corresponding to information collected.


Adware and spyware cont

Adware and Spyware cont.

  • Spyware is like adware it spies on the user to see what information it can collect off the user’s computer to display pop ads on the user’s computer.

  • Spyware unlike adware likes to use memory from programs running in the background of the computer to keep close watch on the user.

  • This most often clogs up the computer causing the program or computer to slow down and become un-fuctional.


Antivirus programs

Antivirus Programs

  • Antivirus programs are designed to detect malware trying to enter the user’s system.

  • There are several ways a antivirus program can track malware entering the computer.

  • Software can use:

    • Signature based detection

    • Heuristics

    • Cloud Antivirus

    • Network Firewall


Signature based detection

Signature-Based Detection

  • Most common way a antivirus finds malware on a computer

  • Database of virus signatures

  • Constant Updates

  • Not 100% foolproof


Heuristics

Heuristics

  • Detection of malware is done by monitoring files and how certain programs try to reform the files on the system.

  • When a modification takes place the antivirus alerts the user and tries to elevate the problem.


Cloud antivirus

Cloud Antivirus

  • New form of antivirus program

  • The virus scanning is done from a remote location(not on the computer).

  • Why this is so popular is because it relieves the physical computer resources.

    • Constant functionality (Nonstop scanning)

  • Security Issues


Network firewall

Network Firewall

  • Operating systems way of protecting the user from unknown programs.

  • Not technically a antivirus program

  • Monitors the TCP/IP ports programs tries to access.


Future threats

Future Threats

  • Almost everything is hooked up to the internet in some sort of form.

  • Recent events have widened the eyes of many security experts.

  • The ability to gain access to high security organizations, infrastructures or mainframes has frightened many people.

  • Could one click of the mouse start World War III?


Cyberspace

Cyberspace

  • Attack on Estonia

    • Attacked parliament, ministries, banks, newspapers, and other websites were attacked by Denial of Service Attacks.

  • Major infrastructures attacked

    • Stuxnet Virus

    • Japan’s Defense Contractors

    • Zeus Malware

  • Obama almost started a Cyberware in Libya.


How can we protect ourselves

How can we protect ourselves

  • Use an antivirus program and keep it up to date!

    • Yes they only protect from know malicious code out there, but it’s still something!


Operating system s security

Operating System’s Security

  • Keep your Operating System up to date!

    • Windows is one of the most hacked OS on the market.

    • The updates are mostly focused on security patches


Become an informed user

Become An Informed User!

  • Become aware of what you are doing on the internet!

    • Don’t click on pop up ads!

    • Keep up to date on current issues happening on the web!


References

References

  • Wang, Wallace. (2006). StealThis Computer Book 4.0: What They Won’t Tell You About the Internet. San Francisco, CA: William Pollock.

  • Panda Cloud Antivirus. (n.d.) Retrieved October 29, 2011 from Wikipedia: http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panda_Cloud_Antivirus

  • Fowler, Daniel. (2008). Importance of Cybersecurity Increases as Attacks Get More Dangerous. In Richard Joseph Stein (Ed.), Internet Safety (pp. 5-7). New York, NY: H.W. Wilson Company.

  • Viega, John. (2009). The Myths of Security: What the computer Security Industry Doesn’t Want you to Know. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, Inc.

  • http://www.alanbonnici.com


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