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Cell Structure Chapter 3. By Mr. Kling. Cell - The smallest unit capable of carrying out all the functions of life . Examples of Cells. Amoeba Proteus. Plant Stem. Bacteria. Red Blood Cell. Nerve Cell. Discovery of the Cell.

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examples of cells
Examples of Cells

Amoeba Proteus

Plant Stem


Red Blood Cell

Nerve Cell

discovery of the cell
Discovery of the Cell
  • The English scientist RobertHooke used one of the first microscopes to observe a thin slice of cork in 1665. He saw a lot of little boxes, which reminded him of the small rooms where monks lived. He called then cells.
  • In 1675, the Dutchscientist Anton van Leeuwenhoek used a microscope to look at a sample of clear pond water and saw single celled organisms.
formation of the cell theory
Formation of The Cell Theory
  • In 1838, a Germanbotanist,MatthiasSchleidenconcluded that all plants were entirely composed of cells.
  • In 1839, the German zoologist TheodorSchwannconcluded that animals were entirely composed of cells.
  • In 1855, the German physician RudolphVirchow determined (while studying how disease affects living things) that cells only come from other cells.
  • These 3 scientists are credited, together, as creating the cell theory.
the cell theory
The Cell Theory
  • All living things are composed of 1 or more cells.
  • In organisms, cells are the basicunitsof structure and function.
  • Cells come only from existing cells.
history of cells
History of Cells
  • The first cells had no separate, internal parts (organelles). They are called prokaryotes.
  • These were the only living things to exist for the first 2 billion years on Earth.
  • Prokaryotes are the mostcommon type of cells on Earth.
  • Prokaryotes are very small (1-15 um).
  • Example: bacteria
history of cells1
History of Cells
  • About 1.5 billion years ago, cells developed a nucleus and other membrane-bound cell parts (organelles). The cells are called eukaryotes.
  • Eukaryotes can be larger (2-2,000 um).
  • Early eukaryotes were single-celled (unicellular).
  • Eventually, many eukaryotic cells joined together and formed multicellular (many celled) organisms.
  • Each cell is able to specializein certain activities.
  • Examples: nerve cells carry messages muscle cells contract the outside of the cell membrane.
two types of cells
Two Types of Cells
  • Prokaryotic
  • Eukaryotic
  • Do not have structures surrounded by membranes
  • Few internal structures
  • One-celled organisms, Bacteria


  • Contain organelles surrounded by membranes
  • Most living organisms




cell size
Cell Size
  • Cells must be small.
  • There are approximately 100 trillion (100,000,000,000,000) cells in the human body.
why are cells so small
Why are cells so small?
  • Surface-to-Volume ratio
      • Food, water, oxygen, and other materials must enter through the surface. Waste products must leave through the surface.
      • As a cell grows, its volume increases morerapidly than its surface area does.
      • As a cell size increases, it takes longer for information and materials to reach their destination. Small cells are more efficient.
eukaryotic cell parts organelles
Eukaryotic Cell Parts (Organelles)
  • Animal Cell Parts
  • Cell Membrane- The outer bilipid boundary of a cell. Also called the plasma membrane.
  • Cytoplasm- The jelly-like fluid in a cell.
  • Ribosomes- Site of protein synthesis.
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum- A folded membrane system used for a molecular transport in the cell. There are 2 types of ER, smooth and rough. Rough ER has lots of ribosomes.
  • Golgi Apparatus- Secretes waste products.
  • Mitochondria- Site of aerobic respiration in cells.
  • The energy distribution center of the cell.
  • Lysosomes- Site of the cellular digestion.
  • Microtubules- Long, slender, tube-shaped organelles that help give the cell shape and support.
animal cell parts continued
Animal Cell Parts (continued)
  • Microfilaments- Fine, threadlike organelles that help give the cell shape and support.
  • Cilia- Hair-like structures on the outside of the cell that help the cell move. Example: The cilia that surround a paramecium.
  • Flagella- Hair-like structure that helps the cell move. Example: The tail of a sperm cell.
  • Nucleus- Contains most of the cell’s DNA.
  • Nuclear Envelope- The membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
  • Chromatin- The DNA and proteins in the nucleus of a nondividing cell.
  • Chromosome- DNA in a coiled, rod-shaped form that occurs during cell division.
  • Nucleolus- Site in the nucleus where ribosomes are created.
plant cell parts
Plant Cell Parts
  • Plant cells have all the parts of animal cell, plus a few more.
    • The additions:
      • Cell Wall- A strong, rigid layer on the outside of the cell membrane.
      • Vacuoles- A fluid-filled cavity that stores waste products. In a mature plant cell, the vacuole typically takes up 90% of the volume.
      • Plastids- An organelle in which food or pigments are stored. There are 3 types:
          • Chloroplasts- Contain chlorophyll.
          • Chromoplasts- Contain orange carotenes, yellow xanthophylls, and various red pigments.
          • Leucoplasts- Store food such as starches, proteins and lipids. Especially common in potato tubers.