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Development of the Vertebrate Body Plan. Temple University School of Medicine. Thomas A. Marino, Ph.D. Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology. DEVELOPMENT OF THE VERTEBRATE BODY PLAN. Early Development 1. Development of Ectoderm A. Neural Tube B. Surface Ectoderm

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Development of the Vertebrate Body Plan

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Development of the Vertebrate Body Plan

Temple University School of Medicine

Thomas A. Marino, Ph.D.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology.


DEVELOPMENT OF THE VERTEBRATE BODY PLAN

Early Development

1. Development of Ectoderm

A. Neural Tube

B. Surface Ectoderm

2. Development of Endoderm

A. G.I. Tract

B. Respiratory Tree

C. Pharynx

3. Development of Mesoderm

A. Paraxial

B. Intermediate

C. Lateral


Gastrulation

Ectoderm

Amniotic Cavity

Paraxial mesoderm

Intermediate mesoderm

Lateral plate mesoderm

Yolk Sac

Notochord

Endoderm


Mesoderm

Blood

Islands


Mesoderm

Three sites of early blood island formation:

  • cardiogenic area

  • yolk sac

  • chorion and connecting stalk


Mesoderm


Mesoderm


Day 21


Mesoderm

Foregut

Dorsal Aorta

Heart

Body

Cavity

Amniotic Cavity


  • UNSW Embryology


Gastrulation

Ectoderm

Amniotic Cavity

Paraxial mesoderm

Intermediate mesoderm

Lateral plate mesoderm

Yolk Sac

Notochord

Endoderm


Somite

(Paraxial

Mesoderm)

Lateral plate

mesoderm

Intermediate Mesoderm


Dermamyotome

Somite

Sclerotome


Dermomyotome

WNT

PAX3

Scleretome

(PAX1)

SHH


Neurotrophin 3(NT-3)

Back (epaxial) muscles

Dermis

NT-3

WNT

Body wall and

Extremity Muscles

MYF5

MYOD

WNT


Muscles,

skeleton

except

skull

dermis of skin

connective tissue

Mesoderm

urogenital system

including gonads,

ducts, and accessory glands

Paraxial Mesoderm

Lateral Mesoderm

Intermediate Mesoderm

connective tissue of viscera and limbs

serous membranes of pleura, pericardium and peritoneum

blood and lymph cells

cardiovascular and lymphatic systems


Homeobox genes &Anteroposterior Axis formation

Back

Tail

Head

3’

5’

HOX-A

HOX-B

HOX-C

HOX-D

Retinoic Acid


Timing of pregnancy

  • Ovarian follicle matures

  • Ovulation

  • Fertilization

  • Blastocyst

  • Bilaminar Embryonic Disc

  • Gastrulation begins

  • Beginning of last menstrual period

  • Proliferative phase of menstrual cycle

  • Secretory phase of menstrual cycle.

  • Implantation

  • Primary villi in placenta

  • First menstrual period missed

  • Day 0

  • Day 1

  • Day 6 - 7

  • Day 14

  • Day 15


Timing of pregnancy

Embryology/

Gestational AgeClinical Age


Pregnancy loss

  • Approximately 30% of the fertilized eggs are carried successfully.

  • Of the 70% that are unsuccessful almost 1/3 are lost prior to implantation.

  • About 40% of postimplantation pregnancies abort spontaneously,

  • Clinically only 10 - 15% are observed.


Pregnancy loss

  • Studies on aborted material demonstrates 50 - 60% have chromosomal anomalies.

  • Very early losses closer to 70%

  • Higher spontaneous loss in older women.

  • Other reasons for loss:

    • Genital tract abnormalities.

    • Infections

    • Endocrine and metabolic anomalies

    • Hematologic and immune disorders


In one month

In six months

In one year

Early 20's

25%

75%

94%

Late20's/early30's

15%

38-47%

70-85%

Late30's

10%

22-24%

65-70%

Chances of Conception*

* from iVillageHealth.com.


No. of months

Early 20's

4-5

Late 20's

5-7

Early 30's

7-10

Late 30's

10-12

Average Time to Conception*

* from iVillageHealth.com.


Confirmation of Pregnancy.

  • Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) produced by the syncytiotrophoblast cells.

  • hCG maintains the corpus leuteum for production of progesterone

  • hCG can be detected by day 14 of pregnancy or 28 days LMP

  • As soon as lacunae are formed and communicate with maternal blood hCG is detected.


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