Development of a Community Airborne Platform Remote-sensing Interdisciplinary Suite (CAPRIS)
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Development of a Community Airborne Platform Remote-sensing Interdisciplinary Suite (CAPRIS) Presentation to CAPRIS Workshop Dec. 14, 2006 Wen-Chau Lee, Eric Loew and Roger Wakimoto Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) NCAR, Boulder, Colorado. S-Polka. Remote Sensing Facility. HCR. NRL P-3 ELDORA.

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Remote sensing facility

Development of a Community Airborne Platform Remote-sensing Interdisciplinary Suite (CAPRIS)Presentation to CAPRIS Workshop Dec. 14, 2006Wen-Chau Lee, Eric Loew and Roger WakimotoEarth Observing Laboratory (EOL)NCAR, Boulder, Colorado


Remote sensing facility

S-Polka

Remote Sensing Facility

HCR

NRL P-3 ELDORA

Instruments

REAL

HSRL


Background

Background

A summary of the instrumentation packages available on various research

Aircraft platforms in the United States


Motivation

Motivation

Improve scientific understanding of the atmosphere by serving the observational needs of broad scientific communities

  • Climate

  • atmospheric chemistry

  • physical meteorology

  • mesoscale meteorology

  • large scale dynamics

    Support numerical weather prediction community

  • Data assimilation

  • Validation model results

  • Developing and testing parameterization schemes

    Validation of measurements from spaceborne platforms

  • CloudSat

  • CALIPSO, AURA

  • GPM, NPP


Motivation cont

Motivation (cont.)

Improve our ability to understand and predict atmospheric systems

  • Climate change

  • Predict high impact weather

  • Foresee components of atmospheric chemistry that affect society

    Long Term View of EOL Facilities

  • A replacement for ELDORA

  • A potential ground-based radar/lidar suite

  • Upgrade C-130 to state-of-the-art airborne platform and infrastructure

  • Fill HIAPER remote sensing instrumentation gaps on cloud microphysics, water vapor, ozone and clear air winds

  • Commitment to phased-array technology, and eye-safe lidars


Remote sensing facility

The NSF Opportunity

Mid-Size Infrastructure for Atmospheric Sciences

ATM maintains a mid-size infrastructure account that can be used to build and/or acquire community facilities.

General Considerations and Eligibility (highlights)

  • Community facility

  • Available funds for larger projects

  • Instrumentation and observing platforms are eligible

  • Partnerships with university, federal, private, or international institutions are encouraged.

  • Design and engineering studies will be supported by the interested parts of ATM.

  • Where appropriate, use of the MRI mechanism for funding or partial funding will be encouraged.

    EOL has been encouraged to submit a Prospectus for CAPRIS

  • Key time for community comment and advice on present concepts

  • Document due to NSF 30 June 2007


Remote sensing facility

Potential Scientific Advancements: Weather

Describe precipitation process from water vapor transport to quantitative precipitation estimate

Understand factors that control hurricane intensity change

Characterize convective initiation and transformation of fair weather cumuli into deep convection

Potential Scientific Advancements: Chemistry

Transport of ozone and water between troposphere and stratosphere e.g., Doppler LIDAR, forward pointing WV observation

Impact of convection on chemical composition of UTLS region e.g. DC3


Remote sensing facility

Potential Scientific Advancements: Climate

  • Observe radiation effect due to deep convective clouds and cirrus ice clouds

  • Validate satellite-based products (CloudSat, GPM)

    Potential Scientific Advancements: PBL studies

  • Resolve spatial variation of turbulent fluctuations of water vapor and ozone

  • Measure entrainment rate of air from free atmosphere into the PBL

    Potential Scientific Advancements: Biogeosciences

  • Resolve PBL constituent fluxes (e.g. CO2, O3, water vapor)

  • Examine scales of land surface processes (e.g. in hydrology) and biomass


Remote sensing facility

CAPRIS Instruments and Science


Remote sensing facility

Examples of Combined Measurements

Cai et al. (2006)


Potential application to ut ls

Tropopause

DC-8 alt

Potential application to UT/LS

Pan et al. (2006)


Remote sensing facility

Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment

Air pollutants vented from PBL

O3, aerosols affect radiative forcing

Pollutants rained out

From Mary Barth and Chris Cantrell’s DC3 report


Design considerations

Design Considerations

  • Develop an airborne and ground-based suite of remote sensors. Integrate phased-array technology and eye-safe lidar technology

  • Reduce X-band radar beam attenuation common to all existing airborne Doppler radars. Add microphysical characterization of the hydrometeors.

  • Aim for compact design to install on multiple aircraft, including other C-130s and HIAPER (global sampling). HALO?

  • Integrate multi-sensor approach on a single research platform in conjunction with in situ sensors.

  • Pursue a modular design approach which allows PIs to pick and choose the optimum combination of remote sensing instruments.


Capris configurations airborne

CAPRIS Configurations -- Airborne

H2O DIAL/Aerosol

  • 1.45 µm, eye safe

  • 4.4 km range, 300 m resolution

  • Up, down, or side

MM-Radar

  • Dual polarization H,V linear

    • ZH, ZDR, KDP, LDR, RHOHV

  • Dual wavelength (W,Ka)

  • Pod-based scanning

  • Doppler (V, σv)

CM-Radar

  • Four active element scanning array (AESA) conformal antennas

    • Two side-looking

    • top, bottom looking

  • Composite “surveillance” scan

  • Dual Doppler (V, σv)

  • 2x resolution of current system – using “smart” scanning

  • Dual polarization H,V linear

    • ZH, ZDR, KDP, RHOHV, LDR

UV O3 DIAL/Clear air wind

  • 0.24-0.30 μm; 0.28-0.30 μm

  • 5 km range, 100 m for DIAL

  • 25 km range and 250 m for wind

  • Molecular scattering

  • Conical scanning

    Others?

  • Heterodyne Doppler lidar for PBL winds

  • CO2 DIAL

  • Vegetation lidar


Remote sensing facility

Upper Radar

W, Ka band Pod

Starboard

Radar

Port Radar

Rear/Lower Radar

C-130 front view


Composite surveillance scan

Composite “Surveillance” Scan

WXR 700C

Weather Avoidance Radar


Capris configurations ground based

CAPRIS Configurations – Ground Based

H2O DIAL/Aerosol

  • Housed in standard 20’ seatainer for ease of portability

  • Full hemispherical coverage via beam steering unit (BSU)

  • Larger telescope for increased sensitivity

CM-Radar

  • Re-package airborne system into two rapidly scanning mobile truck-based Radars

    • Combine pairs of AESA’s into single flat aperture (for improved sensitivity and beamwidth) to be mechanically scanned in azimuth

  • Dual polarization H,V linear

  • Form multiple receive beams (2-4) for higher tilts

UV O3 DIAL/Clear air wind

  • Housed in standard 20’ seatainer for ease of portability

  • Both instruments share BSU and aperture

Rapid DOW; Courtesy CSWR

MM-Radar

  • Re-package pod based radar into compact seatainer

  • Mobile, truck-based or shipped w/o truck

  • Mechanically scanned, azimuth and elevation

  • Dual wavelength (W and Ka)

  • Dual polarization


Estimated performance of cm and mm radar

Estimated Performance of CM and mm radar


Estimated performance of ir and uv lidars

Estimated Performance of IR and UV Lidars


Summary

Summary

  • CAPRIS will meet observational needs of broader scientific communities of climate, atmospheric chemistry, physical meteorology, mesoscale meteorology and larger scale dynamics.

  • Will fill the gap in current HIAPER instrumentation

  • All of the instruments will be built so that they are suitable for both airborne and ground-based deployment

  • Modular approach

    • Configure airborne platform for interdisciplinary research

  • Will modernize Lower Atmosphere Observing Facility remote sensors using the proven technology (phased array, polarization diversity and eye-safe LIDAR technology)

  • No instrument suite currently exists on an airborne platform that can tackle the wide range of atmospheric problems outlined in this presentation


Current status and timeline

Current Status and Timeline

  • A CAPRIS white paper was submitted and presented at NSF

  • There are at least three other competing projects

  • A second white paper will be submitted to NSF by March 2007

  • CAPRIS team has contacted and made a series of visits to US universities and international institutions

  • CAPRIS team hosted town hall meetings at EGU and AGU, and will host a town hall meeting at AMS annual meeting

  • NSF will evaluate all white paper and invite several projects to submit proposal in Fall 2007

  • NSF encourages partnerships with university, federal, private, or international institutions in the planning process


Questions and comments

Questions and Comments

For further information, contact:

Jim Moore ([email protected])

Wen-Chau Lee ([email protected])

Visit the website:

http://www.eol.ucar.edu/development/capris/


Remote sensing facility

END


Water vapor

Water Vapor

CAPRIS Priority: Range-resolved profiles (vertical & horizontal) of water vapor over the widest range of climates and altitudes. Versatility requires eye-safety. Suggested approach: tunability 1450 – 1500 nm.

Above: water vapor mixing ratio below DLR Falcon.

From 940 nm H2O DIAL in 2002 IHOP.

Courtesy: C. Kiemle, DLR

Above: Water vapor absorption band heads and eye-safety.

Courtesy: Scott Spuler, NCAR EOL


Ozone

48”

Tuning

range

56”

34”

Ozone

CAPRIS Priority: Range-resolved vertical profiles of ozone over a wide range of environments and altitudes (e.g. urban air quality and UT/LS studies). Suggested approach: Tunability 260 - 310 nm

Photos provided by Mike Hardesty & Chris Senff, NOAA


Ut ls winds

UT/LS Winds

CAPRIS Priority: Range-resolved profiles (vertical) of horizontal and vertical velocities above and below aircraft in “Aerosol-free” regions of the UT/LS. Suggested approach: UV direct-detection and VAD scans from rotating holographic optical element.

Diagrams and data provided by Bruce Gentry, NASA Goddard


Ir heterodyne doppler

IR Heterodyne Doppler

CAPRIS Priority: high-resolution, eddy-resolving, velocities in the aerosol-rich lower troposphere. Suggested method: Heterodyne Doppler lidar at 1.5 or 2.0 microns.

Data example courtesy Mike Hardesty, NOAA HRDL on DLR Falcon during I-HOP


Estimated performance of ir and uv lidars1

Estimated Performance of IR and UV Lidars


Co 2 dial

CO2 DIAL

CAPRIS Priority: Coarse resolution vertical profiles of CO2. Resolution: 10-minute, 500 m, 1 ppm in 340 ppm background. Suggested method: DIAL at 1.6 or 2.0 microns. 0.3% accuracy required. Extremely difficult.


Vegetation canopy lidar

Vegetation Canopy Lidar

  • Goal: Estimate biomass, canopy structure, and roughness

  • Large surface foot-print

  • Very high-speed (GHz) digitizers to resolve distribution of canopy matter (foliage, trunks, branches, twigs, etc.)


Capris configurations ground based1

CAPRIS Configurations – Ground Based

CM-Radar

  • Re-package airborne system into two rapidly scanning mobile truck-based Radars: X and C bands

    • Re-configure both C band AESA’s into single flat aperture (for improved sensitivity and beamwidth) to be mechanically scanned in azimuth

    • Configure X-band similarly

  • Dual polarization H,V linear

  • Form multiple receive beams (3-5) for higher tilts

MM-Radar

  • Re-package pod based radar into compact seatainer

  • Mobile, truck-based or shipped w/o truck

  • Mechanically scanned, azimuth and elevation

  • Dual wavelength (W and Ka)

  • Dual polarization

Rapid DOW; Courtesy CSWR


Community airborne platform remote sensing suite capris

Community Airborne Platform Remote-sensing Suite (CAPRIS)

Improve scientific understanding of the biosphere…

  • Observational needs of broad scientific communities in climate, atmospheric chemistry, physical meteorology, mesoscale meteorology, biogeochemistry, larger scale dynamics, oceanography and land surface processes

    Long Term View of EOL Facilities

  • A replacement for ELDORA airborne Doppler radar

  • Upgrade C-130 to state-of-the-art airborne platform and infrastructure

  • Fill NCAR G-V remote sensing instrumentation gaps on cloud microphysics, water vapor, ozone and clear air winds

  • Commitment to phased-array technology, and eye-safe lidars

  • Optional comprehensive ground-based instrument suite


Motivation for capris

Motivation for CAPRIS

Data assimilation, validation and developing and testing parameterization schemes

  • Community models - WRF, WACCSM and MOZART

    Validation of measurements from spaceborne platforms

  • CloudSat, GPM

    Improve our ability to understand and predict atmospheric and surface processes

  • Project climate change

  • High impact weather

  • Foresee components of atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemistry that affect society

  • Land surface processes


Potential scientific advancements weather

Potential Scientific Advancements: Weather

  • Describe precipitation process from water vapor transport to quantitative precipitation estimate

  • Understand factors that control hurricane intensity change

  • Characterize convective initiation and transformation of fair weather cumuli into deep convection

Potential Scientific Advancements: Chemistry

Transport of ozone and water between troposphere and stratosphere e.g., Doppler LIDAR, forward pointing WV observation

Impact of convection on chemical composition of UTLS region


Potential scientific advancements climate

Potential Scientific Advancements: Climate

  • Observe radiation effect due to deep convective clouds and cirrus ice clouds

  • Validate satellite-based products (CloudSat, CALIPSO, GPM)

    Potential Scientific Advancements: PBL studies

  • Resolve spatial variation of turbulent fluctuations of water vapor and ozone

  • Measure entrainment rate of air from free atmosphere into the PBL


Instruments and science

Instruments and Science


Design considerations1

Design Considerations

  • Develop an airborne and ground-based suite of remote sensors. Integrate phased-array technology and eye-safe lidar technology

  • Reduce X-band radar beam attenuation common to all existing airborne Doppler radars. Add microphysical characterization of the hydrometeors.

  • Aim for compact design to install on multiple aircraft, including other C-130s and HIAPER (global sampling). HALO?

  • Integrate multi-sensor approach on a single research platform in conjunction with in situ sensors.

  • Pursue a modular design approach which allows PIs to pick and choose the optimum combination of remote sensing instruments.


Capris configurations airborne1

CAPRIS Configurations -- Airborne

H2O DIAL/Aerosol

  • 1.45 µm, eye safe

  • 4.4 km range, 300 m resolution

  • Up, down, or side

MM-Radar

  • Dual polarization H,V linear

    • ZH, ZDR, KDP, LDR, RHOHV

  • Dual wavelength (W,Ka)

  • Pod-based scanning

  • Doppler (V, σv)

CM-Radar

  • Four active element scanning array (AESA) conformal antennas

    • Two side-looking

    • top, bottom looking

  • Composite “surveillance” scan

  • Dual Doppler (V, σv)

  • 2x resolution of current system – using “smart” scanning

  • Dual polarization H,V linear

    • ZH, ZDR, KDP, RHOHV, LDR

UV O3 DIAL/Clear air wind

  • 0.24-0.30 μm; 0.28-0.30 μm

  • 5 km range, 100 m for DIAL

  • 25 km range and 250 m for wind

  • Molecular scattering

  • Conical scanning

    Others?

  • Heterodyne Doppler lidar for PBL winds

  • CO2 DIAL

  • Vegetation lidar


Summary1

Summary

  • CAPRIS will meet observational needs of broader scientific communities of climate, atmospheric chemistry, physical meteorology, mesoscale meteorology and larger scale dynamics.

  • Will fill the gap in current HIAPER instrumentation

  • All of the instruments will be built so that they are suitable for both airborne and ground-based deployment

  • Modular approach

    • Configure airborne platform for interdisciplinary research

  • Will modernize Lower Atmosphere Observing Facility remote sensors using the proven technology (phased array, polarization diversity and eye-safe LIDAR technology)

  • No instrument suite currently exists on an airborne platform that can tackle the wide range of atmospheric problems outlined in this presentation


Community input requested

Community Input Requested

  • Frequency Choice: X or C Band

  • Define Polarization Specifications

    • Degree of overlap of H and V antenna patterns, over what range of Az and El?

    • ICPR, over what range of Az and El?

  • Define Intelligent Scan Strategies

    • Incorporate simple and coded pulses and perhaps staggered PRTs

    • Incorporate polarization diversity, co-pol and cross-pol?

  • Define multiple beam scenarios

    • Spaced Antenna (SA)

    • Rapid scanning on the ground

  • Other?


Collaboration and or joint development opportunities

Collaboration and/or Joint Development Opportunities


Remote sensing facility

END


Remote sensing facility

Example of a convective case (all rain) – raw C-band radar data from the UAH/NSSTC ARMOR radar

Z

ZDR

KDP

KDP

Uncor-rected

ZDR

KDP

Z

Corrected

PPI at 1.3 degrees elevevation


Remote sensing facility

Histograms for Ah > 5 dB and Z_hs > 30.0 dBZ and Kdp > 0.0 deg/km


Remote sensing facility

Retrieval of particle size (RES), LWC from mm-wave radar.


Remote sensing facility

X-Pol Reflectivity

S and X-band Radar Observations

Total attenuation

S-Pol

Not good correction

X-Pol corrected.


Aesa characteristics

AESA Characteristics


Cm wave radar performance

CM-Wave Radar Performance

** 140 deg/sec scan rate


Mm wave radar performance

MM-Wave Radar Performance

* Sensitivity can be increased at the expense of range resolution and/or along track spacing

** No Scanning; ~100 millisecond dwell time


Ir h 2 o dial estimated performance

IR H2O/DIALestimated performance

  • model scenario: alt: 7.6 km (25,000 ft) and resolution: 300 m, 60 sec

  • Approximate performance vs. existing H20 DIAL systems

NOHD - range until beam is safe (ground operation, staring)


Uv ozone dial estimated performance

UV ozone/DIAL estimated performance

  • model scenario: alt: 7.6 km (25,000 ft) and resolution: 200 m, 60 sec

  • Approximate performance vs. existing O3 DIAL (all systems operate l = 280-300 nm)

NOHD - range until beam is safe for ground operation


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