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Latin American Law. Corporate law Basics. Last updated 30 Nov 11. Today’s topics. Civilian business organizations Types: “hub and spoke” Rules (mandatory / default) Organizational basics Formation Promoter / notary / authorization / registration Single act or public subscription

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Corporate law Basics

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Corporate law basics

Latin American Law

Corporate lawBasics

Last updated 30 Nov 11

Today s topics

Today’s topics

  • Civilian business organizations

    • Types: “hub and spoke”

    • Rules (mandatory / default)

  • Organizational basics

    • Formation

      • Promoter / notary / authorization / registration

      • Single act or public subscription

      • Constitutive documents

    • Structure

      • Shareholders / managers

      • Oversight: board / supervisory council

      • Centrality of shareholder meeting

    • Liability

      • Promoter liability for pre-formation agreements

      • “Piercing corporate veil”

      • Director/manager liability

Value of knowing other legal systems

Value of knowing other legal systems

  • Model for borrowing

  • Gain perspective

  • Discover truths

  • Impose / power

State directed economy …

Business organizations

Business organizations …

Corporate law basics

Latin American (Spanish)

sociedad anónima (SA)

sociedad cerrada

sociedad colectiva

sociedad en comandita (sociedad comanditaria)

sociedad de empresas (en participación)

sociedad de inversiones

sociedad de responsabilidad limitada (SRL)

sociedad filial

sociedad matriz

sociedad por acciones (SpA)

sociedad pública (corporación)

sociedad unipersonal

United States


close corporation (not “closed”)

general partnership

government agency

limited partnership

joint venture

individual corporation

investment company (mutual fund)

limited liability company

parent company

subsidiary company

1-A / 2-B / 3-C / 4-E / 5-F / 6-H / 7-I / 8-K / 9-J / 10-A / 11-D / 12-G

Corporate law basics

“Hub and spoke”

(civilian bus orgs)

  • Argentina Business

  • Organizations Act

  • Title II

  • Norms for legal entities

  • ------

  • Registration

  • Voting

  • Limited liability





Associations, foundations


Form an argentine business

Form an Argentine business …

Form an srl llc

Form an SRL / LLC

SRL – Argentina

  • reserve a company name with a specific governmental form (IGJ form #3)

  • have company members' signatures verified by a notary

  • deposit subscribed capital in the national bank

  • publish an announcement of the company's formation in the Official Bulletin

  • pay the incorporation fee

  • register the corporation

  • obtain books for company record-keeping

  • submit books to a notary for certification

  • obtain a tax 'password’

  • obtain a tax identification number

  • register for sales taxes with the local government

  • register with the Social Security Administration

  • obtain employment insurance

  • submit company books to Labor Ministry for certification


  • ensure name availability within your state of organization

  • develop an operating agreement

  • file the articles of organization

  • apply for a tax identification number

Sam Wellborn

Corporate law basics

Constitution Instrument

Name (must include SA)


Classes / rights of shares

Amount of capital

Subscription terms

Identity of shareholders

Election of directors

Company domicile

What are company “statutes”?











Board of Trustees






Public RegistryJudge


Winslow Taylor

Corporate law basics

Argentina is “a chronically unstable, endemically corrupt polity with a rich history of dictatorship, economic mismanagement and the occasional political lunacy.”

In Argentina, the culture has created a “tendency towards individualism, unwillingness to engage in teamwork and a lack of trust in people.”

Corporate law basics

Form US branch of Argentine corporation?

Form Argentine branch of US corporation?

Inspeccion General de Justicia

Secretary of State (foreign corporation)

  • Winslow Taylor

  • Corporate federalism?

Corporate law basics

According to Olivares, all Argentine shareholders enjoy the right to

cumulative voting (one-third of the board vacancies)

right to be informed in advance of the shareholder meeting matters

pre-emptive right (right to purchase pro rata in any stock offering)

right to request judicial oversight of the company “as a preventive measure … serious danger to the company.”

right to dividends.

  • Sam Wellborn

  • Compare to US?

  • Shs better off in Argentina?

Corporate law basics

Argentina Business Organizations Act

Article 59: The managers of the organization shall act loyally and exercise the level of care of a good businessman. If they neglect their obligations they are responsible unlimitedly and jointly for any harm that may result from their acts or omissions.

  • Taryn Kadar

  • How do you run the business?

  • Who might sue you?

  • Piercing the veil?

  • BJR?

Corporate law basics

A business purpose plays a significant role in Argentine corporate law. In Argentina, the description of a corporation’s objective must be “precise and definite.”

Section 54 of the ACL provides that shareholders of a local corporation shall be held unlimitedly and jointly and severally liable if such corporation has been used as a mere vehicle to pursue goals alien to the corporate purpose, breach the law or the public order or to impair third parties rights


Corporate law basics


The measure of a corporate law system is how it deals with executive compensation

The measure of a corporate law system is how it deals with executive compensation …

Invest in argentine company

Invest in Argentine company?

Grupo Financiero Galicia (GGAL)

Corporate law basics

IESE Business School in Spain: Argentine life is “characterized by making the least possible effort, ignoring the law and seeking individual advantage over any other interest.”

Do “ethics codes” reassure

foreign investors?

Jen Beatty

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