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How Does the Brain Develop?. Everything we do, feel and say from infancy to the end of life reflect the functioning of our brain. How is the brain organized?. The Neuron. The neuron is the basic building block of the nervous system They are often grouped in bundles called nerves.

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Everything we do feel and say from infancy to the end of life reflect the functioning of our brain

Everything we do, feel and say from infancy to the end of life reflect the functioning of our brain

How is the brain organized?


The neuron
The Neuron life reflect the functioning of our brain

  • The neuron is the basic building block of the nervous system

    • They are often grouped in bundles called nerves.

  • There are billions and billions of neurons throughout the body


4 parts of the neuron
4 parts of the neuron life reflect the functioning of our brain

  • Dendrites are specialized to receive signals from neighboring neurons and carry them back to the cell body

  • Thin, bushy-like structures that receive information from outside the neuron

  • Relays the information into the cell body


The neuron1
The Neuron life reflect the functioning of our brain

  • The Cell body contains the cell nucleus

  • The cell body relays the information down to the axon


The structure of a neuron
The structure of a neuron life reflect the functioning of our brain

  • Axon: A thin, long structure that transmits signals from the cell body to the terminal buttons.

    • The axon is wrapped in myelin, a fatty sheath that allows it to transmit information more rapidly.


How does the brain develop

Once the information hits the life reflect the functioning of our brainTerminal button, it is transmitted outside the cell by neurotransmitters, which reside in the axon terminal.


The neuron2
The Neuron life reflect the functioning of our brain


Fun facts
Fun Facts life reflect the functioning of our brain

  • Average number of neurons in the human brain

    • 100 billion

  • Average number of neurons in an octopus brain

    • 300 million

  • Rate of neuron growth during development of a fetus (while in the womb)

    • 250,000 neurons per minute



Electrical communication
Electrical Communication other.

  • Action potential is an electrical current sent down the axon initiates the release of neurotransmitter.

  • The activity within the neurons is electrical. This current causes the neuron to “fire”

  • When an action potential moves down the axon, it causes the release of neurotransmitters


Synaptic transmission
Synaptic transmission other.

  • The neurons don’t actually touch each other, there is a gap between one neuron and the next called Synapses.

    • Thespace between neurons

  • Information must be transmitted across the synapse to other neurons via the neurotransmitters.


How does the brain develop

Presynaptic Neuron other.

Postsynaptic Neuron


Neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters other.

  • Neurotransmitters are chemical substances that reside in the axon terminals

  • They communicate to other neurons by binding to receptors on neighboring neurons



Brain development
Brain Development other.

  • The wrinkled outer area of the brain is called the CerebralCortex-

  • The cortex regulates many of our functions that we think of distinctly human.

  • Your personality, ability to carry out plans, certain types of thinking, memory, sensory activity.


Looking at the brain
Looking at the Brain other.

  • The exterior covering (cortex) of the brain is wrinkled which increases the surface area of the brain

  • The brain is divided into 2 hemispheres

    • Right and left hemispheres


How does the brain develop

The other.Corpus Callosum connects these hemispheres and allows communication from one side of the brain to the other.



The beginning of the brain can be traced to the period of the zygote

The beginning of the brain can be traced to the period of the zygote

Approximately 3 weeks after conception a groups of cells form a flat structure called the neural plate


The neural plate folds to form a tube that ultimately becomes the brain and spinal cord

The the zygoteneural plate folds to form a tube that ultimately becomes the brain and spinal cord

3 week old zygote


Early brain development
Early Brain Development the zygote

  • In the months after birth the brain grows rapidly, producing billions of neurons, dendrites and axons, as well as synapses reaching its peak around the infant’s first birthday.

    -In the first 2 years the brain increases in size from 25% to 75% of its adult weight

  • Soon after synapses soon to gradually disappear a phenomenon known as synaptic pruning.

    -This process is the brain’s way of “weeding out” the unnecessary connections between neurons.


Brain growth and development
Brain growth and development the zygote

  • There is a fivefold increase in the number of dendrites in cortex from birth to age 2 years, as a result approximately 15,000 new connections may be established per neuron.

    • This is called “Transient exuberance”

  • These connections are necessary because thinking and learning require many connections between many parts of the brain

  • Experience is vital for brain formation


How does the brain develop

If cells are unused they the zygoteatrophy and are rededicated to other senses. Underused neurons, like synapses are inactivated by pruning process


The brain s organization is somewhat flexible and if damaged the brain can make new connections

When children suffer brain damage, cognitive processes are usually impaired; these processes often improve gradually showing the brain’s plasticity

The brain’s organization is somewhat flexible and if damaged the brain can make new connections


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