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Intellectual Development in Infants. Chapter 9. Early Brain Development. Neurons – nerve cells in brain Neural pathways – links between neurons – wire the brain for thinking processes Link development reach peak at age 10. Brain structure. Cerebrum Thalamus Cerebellum Pituitary Gland

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Intellectual Development in Infants

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Intellectual Development in Infants

Chapter 9


Early Brain Development

  • Neurons – nerve cells in brain

  • Neural pathways – links between neurons – wire the brain for thinking processes

  • Link development reach peak at age 10


Brain structure

  • Cerebrum

  • Thalamus

  • Cerebellum

  • Pituitary Gland

  • Brain Stem

  • Spinal Cord


How the Brain Works

  • Axons

  • Myelin

  • Dendrites

  • Synapses

  • Neurotransmitters

  • See images page 283


Stimulate Brain Development

  • Keep it simple and natural

  • Match experiences to child’s mental abilities.

  • Practice makes perfect

  • Actively involve the baby

  • Provide variety , but avoid overload

  • Avoid pushing the child. See page 286


Intellectual Development in the First Year

  • Key terms

    • Perception

    • Attention span

    • Sensorimotor period

    • Object permanence

    • Imaginative play

    • Symbolic thinking

    • Concepts


Signs of Intellectual Development

  • Remembering experiences

  • Making associations

  • Understanding cause and effect

  • Paying attention


Piaget’s Learning Theories

  • Sensorimotor – 0-2 years – learn thru senses and actions.

  • Preoperational – 2-7 years – in the moment – own activities and perceptions

  • Concrete operations – 7-11 years – think logically, learn best thru experiences

  • Formal operations – 11-adult – capable of abstract thinking


Sensory Play

  • Learning to move hands and feet

  • Crawling and walking – opens up world

  • Seeing, touching smelling, listening

  • Everything goes in mouth

  • Need to provide objects and toys that stimulate child’s senses


Concept Development

  • Concepts – general categories of objects and information

    • Think that labels are for whole objects, not parts

    • Think that labels apply to the group that the objects belong in

    • Believe that an objects can only have one label.


Helping Infants Learn

  • Understand Age Appropriate for each child

  • Give child time and attention

  • Positive feedback

  • Express love

  • Talk, talk, talk

  • Keep environment safe – child proof


Different Toys for Different Ages

  • Birth to 3 mos.

  • 4-6 mos.

  • 7-9 mos.

  • 10-12 mos.


Toys

  • The word “Toy” comes from an old English term that means :TOOL

  • Toys are TOOLS for a child.

  • With these tools, children are allowed to use their senses, fine and gross motor skills, and their imaginations.

  • Cognitive and social skills are also increased as a child plays with toys.

  • Toys are valuable TEACHING tools.


Toy Selection

  • Make sure the toy is DAP

    • Toys for age-appropriate development of the child

  • Soft & Cuddling Toys

    • Dolls, stuffed animals, etc.

  • Manipulation/Small Motor Skill Toys

    • Blocks, puzzles, snap, gears, games, etc.

  • Large Motor Skill Toys

    • Tricycles/bikes, balls, jump ropes, scooters, etc.

  • Dramatic Play

    • Dress-up clothes, furniture and accessories, etc.


Safety Issues

  • SIZE of toy and pieces

    • Larger than the child’s two fists

  • No SHARP edges or points

    • Broken toys should be fixed or thrown away

  • NON-TOXIC materials

    • Avoid all painted toys for babies & toddlers

  • DURABLE, WASHABLE and CLEAN

    • Toy’s that won’t break easily

    • Toys that can be cleaned easily


  • Child Protection and Safety Act

    • SIZE of toy and pieces

      • Larger than the child’s two fists

  • No SHARP edges or points

    • Broken toys should be fixed or thrown away

  • NON-TOXIC materials

    • Avoid all painted toys for babies & toddlers

  • DURABLE, WASHABLE and CLEAN

    • Toy’s that won’t break easily

    • Toys that can be cleaned easily


  • Toys should be …

    • AGE- APPROPRIATE (DAP)

      • Check the suggested age on the packaging

    • SAFE

      • This applies to new and used toys

    • TEACH a Skill or Concept

      • Aide in one of the 5 areas of Child Development

    • FUN - FUN - FUN!!!


    The End

    • For more fun view Classic Toys PowerPoint


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