The macro model
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The Macro Model. National Income Chapter 10. Apple CEO Steve Jobs. Graphing the Macro Model. The vertical axis of the measures the Price Level, rather than Price in the Micro Model The horizontal axis of the measures Real GDP, rather than quantity of micro model Price Level = PL

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The Macro Model

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The macro model

The Macro Model

National Income

Chapter 10


Apple ceo steve jobs

Apple CEO Steve Jobs


Graphing the macro model

Graphing the Macro Model

  • The vertical axis of the measures the Price Level, rather than Price in the Micro Model

  • The horizontal axis of the measures Real GDP, rather than quantity of micro model

  • Price Level = PL

  • Real GDP = RGDP


Long run aggregate supply

Long Run Aggregate Supply

  • The Long Run Aggregate Supply curve represents an economy where all inputs: land, labor and capital are used to their fullest efficiency

  • The Long Run Aggregate Supply Curve = LRAS

  • It is similar to the productions possibilities frontier on a production possibilities graph


Real gdp or national income

Real GDP or National Income

  • The LRAS represents the economy running at “full employment” or the maximum level of national income.

  • The LRAS often uses Y to represent “full employment” RGDP or maximum National Income


Growth

Growth

  • The LRAS may shift to the right indicating that there has been economic growth of real GDP

  • This is similar to the shift out in the production possibilities graph


Increases in the lras

Increases in the LRAS

  • Growth created with the LRAS leads to increases in RGDP and decreases in price levels

  • This is a good situation for an economy when it can grow without price rises.


Rgdp contractions

RGDP Contractions

  • The LRAS may also shrink with a real GDP contraction

  • This is indicated by the LRAS shifting to the left

  • This type of shift is called a supply shock


Decreases in the lras

Decreases in the LRAS

  • Decreases in the LRAS can leads to decreases in Real GDP and increases in Price Levels

  • This type of inflation is called cost push inflation


What are the four components of aggregate demand

What are the four components of Aggregate Demand?

  • C = Consumption

  • I = Business Investment

  • G = Government Spending

  • NX= Net Exports = exports - imports


Aggregate demand

Aggregate Demand

  • The macro model has a downward sloping aggregate demand curve

  • The Aggregate Demand = C+I+G+(NX)

  • Aggregate Demand is abbreviated AD

  • The place where the AD intersects the LRAS is the price level


Increases in aggregate demand

Increases in Aggregate Demand

  • Increases in Aggregate demand lead to increases in price levels, however with the LRAS there is no change in RGDP

  • These increases are called demand pull inflation

  • This type of inflation is common during period of economic expansions


Decreases in aggregate demand

Decreases in Aggregate Demand

  • Decreases in Aggregate Demand lead to lower price levels, however real GDP does not change Real GDP

  • Decreases in aggregate demand commonly occurs during a contraction or recession


What happens to rgdp if price levels fall

What happens to RGDP if price levels fall?

  • If price levels fall the RGDP will rise


What happens to rgdp if price levels rise

What happens to RGDP if price levels rise?

  • If price levels rise the RGDP will fall


Why does the ad curve slope down

Why does the AD curve slope down?

  • Wealth Effect -(also called Real Balance Effect) if price level rises, people’s purchasing power goes down and if price levels fall people’s purchasing power goes up


Why does the ad curve slope down1

Why does the AD curve slope down?

Interest Rate Effect - if prices rise the real value of money goes down, therefore the demand to borrow money increases, driving up interest rates. Conversely if prices fall, interest rates fall.


Why does the ad curve slope down2

Why does the AD curve slope down?

  • Open Economy Effect - if price levels go up our net exports drop; if price levels goes down our net exports increase


What causes increases and decreases aggregate demand

What causes increases and decreases Aggregate Demand

  • Changes in price levels lead to changes in real GDP

  • There are a variety of non- price factors which can shift the Aggregate Demand curve up and down.

  • Look at the following examples, and figure out whether they will increase or decrease AD


People begin buying more food clothing and cars

People begin buying more food, clothing, and cars

  • Aggregate demand will rise


The federal government reduces military spending

The federal government reduces military spending

  • Aggregate demand will fall


Sales tax is eliminated in california

Sales tax is eliminated in California

  • Aggregate demand will rise


Foreign countries buy more us exports

Foreign countries buy more US exports

  • Aggregate demand will rise


The money supply decreases

The money supply decreases

  • Aggregate demand will decrease


The us dollar becomes stronger compared to the euro

The US dollar becomes stronger compared to the Euro

  • Aggregate demand will fall


The federal reserve bank raises interest rates

The Federal Reserve Bank raises interest rates

  • Aggregate demand will fall


A us company sells a jet to a foreign country

A US company sells a jet to a foreign country

  • Aggregate Demand will rise


A us company buys coffee beans from guatemala

A US company buys coffee beans from Guatemala

  • Aggregate demand will fall


A drop in the value of the dollar

A drop in the value of the dollar

  • Aggregate demand will increase


The federal reserve restricts the money supply

The Federal reserve restricts the money supply

  • Aggregate demand falls


Interest rates fall

Interest rates fall

  • Increase in aggregate demand


Europe and japan suffers from a depression

Europe and Japan suffers from a Depression

  • Aggregate Demand falls


China grows rapidly and buys high tech us products

China grows rapidly, and buys high tech US products

  • Aggregate Demand rises


Shifts in long run aggregate supply curve

Shifts in Long Run Aggregate Supply Curve


Which side are you on

Which side are you on?

  • Consumer spending increases

  • AD

  • New inventions boost solar energy

  • AS

  • Government cuts back on military budget

  • AD

  • Government raises the retirement age on workers

  • AS

  • Business investment increases

  • AD


Which side are you on1

Which side are you on?

  • Retraining of US workers make them more productive

  • AS

  • New shale oil is discovered in the Rockies

  • AS


Modern macro model with short run aggregate supply curve

Modern Macro Model with Short Run Aggregate Supply Curve


Short run aggregate supply curve

Short Run Aggregate Supply Curve

  • The short run aggregate supply curve or (SRAS) can shift when there are temporary efficiencies in capital, labor, and land

  • For example, plants can run at more than a 100% capacity, when they run at night.

  • Workers can work overtime, thus increasing the productivity of labor


Shifts in the short run aggregate supply

Shifts in the short run Aggregate Supply

  • Short run increases in the supply curve is the result of:

  • Labor working overtime

  • More efficient technologies are introduced

  • The costs of labor, land or capital falls


Decreases in the sras

Decreases in the SRAS

  • The SRAS can also decline if:

  • Natural disasters disrupt the flow of resources

  • Any increase in the price of the inputs of production: land, labor, and capital

  • Any fall in the productivity or efficiency of land,labor,and capital


What impact do each of these have on the sras

What impact do each of these have on the SRAS?

  • New inventions make solar energy more efficiently produced

  • Increase in the SRAS


What impact do each of these have on the sras1

What impact do each of these have on the SRAS?

  • OPEC reduces their production of crude oil by 30%

  • decrease in the SRAS


What impact do each of these have on the sras2

What impact do each of these have on the SRAS?

  • Many people in the labor force take early retirements

  • decrease in the SRAS


What impact do each of these have on the sras3

What impact do each of these have on the SRAS?

  • Education and training for new workers increases sharply

  • Increase in the SRAS


What impact do each of these have on the sras4

What impact do each of these have on the SRAS?

  • Floods in the Midwest destroy 20% of the corn crop

  • Decrease in SRAS


Your turn

Your turn

  • Make up four examples that will effect aggregate demand

  • Make up two more examples that will effect aggregate supply

  • Share your list with your neighbor


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