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The Macro Model. National Income Chapter 10. Apple CEO Steve Jobs. Graphing the Macro Model. The vertical axis of the measures the Price Level, rather than Price in the Micro Model The horizontal axis of the measures Real GDP, rather than quantity of micro model Price Level = PL

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The Macro Model

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## The Macro Model

National Income

Chapter 10

### Graphing the Macro Model

• The vertical axis of the measures the Price Level, rather than Price in the Micro Model

• The horizontal axis of the measures Real GDP, rather than quantity of micro model

• Price Level = PL

• Real GDP = RGDP

### Long Run Aggregate Supply

• The Long Run Aggregate Supply curve represents an economy where all inputs: land, labor and capital are used to their fullest efficiency

• The Long Run Aggregate Supply Curve = LRAS

• It is similar to the productions possibilities frontier on a production possibilities graph

### Real GDP or National Income

• The LRAS represents the economy running at “full employment” or the maximum level of national income.

• The LRAS often uses Y to represent “full employment” RGDP or maximum National Income

### Growth

• The LRAS may shift to the right indicating that there has been economic growth of real GDP

• This is similar to the shift out in the production possibilities graph

### Increases in the LRAS

• Growth created with the LRAS leads to increases in RGDP and decreases in price levels

• This is a good situation for an economy when it can grow without price rises.

### RGDP Contractions

• The LRAS may also shrink with a real GDP contraction

• This is indicated by the LRAS shifting to the left

• This type of shift is called a supply shock

### Decreases in the LRAS

• Decreases in the LRAS can leads to decreases in Real GDP and increases in Price Levels

• This type of inflation is called cost push inflation

### What are the four components of Aggregate Demand?

• C = Consumption

• G = Government Spending

• NX= Net Exports = exports - imports

### Aggregate Demand

• The macro model has a downward sloping aggregate demand curve

• The Aggregate Demand = C+I+G+(NX)

• Aggregate Demand is abbreviated AD

• The place where the AD intersects the LRAS is the price level

### Increases in Aggregate Demand

• Increases in Aggregate demand lead to increases in price levels, however with the LRAS there is no change in RGDP

• These increases are called demand pull inflation

• This type of inflation is common during period of economic expansions

### Decreases in Aggregate Demand

• Decreases in Aggregate Demand lead to lower price levels, however real GDP does not change Real GDP

• Decreases in aggregate demand commonly occurs during a contraction or recession

### What happens to RGDP if price levels fall?

• If price levels fall the RGDP will rise

### What happens to RGDP if price levels rise?

• If price levels rise the RGDP will fall

### Why does the AD curve slope down?

• Wealth Effect -(also called Real Balance Effect) if price level rises, people’s purchasing power goes down and if price levels fall people’s purchasing power goes up

### Why does the AD curve slope down?

Interest Rate Effect - if prices rise the real value of money goes down, therefore the demand to borrow money increases, driving up interest rates. Conversely if prices fall, interest rates fall.

### Why does the AD curve slope down?

• Open Economy Effect - if price levels go up our net exports drop; if price levels goes down our net exports increase

### What causes increases and decreases Aggregate Demand

• Changes in price levels lead to changes in real GDP

• There are a variety of non- price factors which can shift the Aggregate Demand curve up and down.

• Look at the following examples, and figure out whether they will increase or decrease AD

### People begin buying more food, clothing, and cars

• Aggregate demand will rise

### The federal government reduces military spending

• Aggregate demand will fall

### Sales tax is eliminated in California

• Aggregate demand will rise

### Foreign countries buy more US exports

• Aggregate demand will rise

### The money supply decreases

• Aggregate demand will decrease

### The US dollar becomes stronger compared to the Euro

• Aggregate demand will fall

### The Federal Reserve Bank raises interest rates

• Aggregate demand will fall

### A US company sells a jet to a foreign country

• Aggregate Demand will rise

### A US company buys coffee beans from Guatemala

• Aggregate demand will fall

### A drop in the value of the dollar

• Aggregate demand will increase

### The Federal reserve restricts the money supply

• Aggregate demand falls

### Interest rates fall

• Increase in aggregate demand

### Europe and Japan suffers from a Depression

• Aggregate Demand falls

### China grows rapidly, and buys high tech US products

• Aggregate Demand rises

### Which side are you on?

• Consumer spending increases

• New inventions boost solar energy

• AS

• Government cuts back on military budget

• Government raises the retirement age on workers

• AS

### Which side are you on?

• Retraining of US workers make them more productive

• AS

• New shale oil is discovered in the Rockies

• AS

### Short Run Aggregate Supply Curve

• The short run aggregate supply curve or (SRAS) can shift when there are temporary efficiencies in capital, labor, and land

• For example, plants can run at more than a 100% capacity, when they run at night.

• Workers can work overtime, thus increasing the productivity of labor

### Shifts in the short run Aggregate Supply

• Short run increases in the supply curve is the result of:

• Labor working overtime

• More efficient technologies are introduced

• The costs of labor, land or capital falls

### Decreases in the SRAS

• The SRAS can also decline if:

• Natural disasters disrupt the flow of resources

• Any increase in the price of the inputs of production: land, labor, and capital

• Any fall in the productivity or efficiency of land,labor,and capital

### What impact do each of these have on the SRAS?

• New inventions make solar energy more efficiently produced

• Increase in the SRAS

### What impact do each of these have on the SRAS?

• OPEC reduces their production of crude oil by 30%

• decrease in the SRAS

### What impact do each of these have on the SRAS?

• Many people in the labor force take early retirements

• decrease in the SRAS

### What impact do each of these have on the SRAS?

• Education and training for new workers increases sharply

• Increase in the SRAS

### What impact do each of these have on the SRAS?

• Floods in the Midwest destroy 20% of the corn crop

• Decrease in SRAS