High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts
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High Current Density and High Power Density Operation of Ultra High Speed InP DHBTs . Mattias Dahlström 1 , Zach Griffith, Young-Min Kim 2 , Mark J.W. Rodwell Department of ECE University of California, Santa Barbara, USA. (1) Now with IBM Microelectronics, Essex Junction, VT

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High Current Density and High Power Density Operation of Ultra High Speed InP DHBTs

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High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

High Current Density and High Power Density Operation of Ultra High Speed InP DHBTs

Mattias Dahlström1, Zach Griffith,

Young-Min Kim2, Mark J.W. Rodwell

Department of ECE

University of California, Santa Barbara, USA

(1) Now with IBM Microelectronics, Essex Junction, VT

(2) Now with Sandia National Labs, NM

[email protected] 805-893-8044, 805-893-3262 fax


Overview

Overview

  • Fast devices and circuits need high current!

    • Current limited by

      • Kirk current threshold

      • Device heating

    • Thermal resistance  Device heating

  • Design of low thermal resistance HBT

  • High Current Devices with state of the art RF performance


The need for high current density

The need for high current density

Scaling laws:

Single HBT:

ft

Je=8 mA/mm2

Digital circuit

Key performance parameters:

Je=6.9 mA/mm2

Minimize capacitance charging times!

 Increase current density

Output spectrum @ 59.35 GHz, fclk=118.70 GHz


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

Thermal conductivity of common materials

Ternaries lattice matched to InP


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

Vbe = 0.95 V, Vce= 1.3 V

HBT: Where is the heat generated?

Power generation: JE x VCE=6 x 1.5 V=9 mW/mm2

In the intrinsic collector


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

HBT: heat transport

Thermal resistance of materials in collector and subcollector critical

Main heat transport is through the subcollector to the substrate

Up to 30 % heat transport up through the emitter contact


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

How to design a low thermal resistance HBT

A five step process

Identify high thermal resistance materials 

change them low thermal resistance materials

Very simple!


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

SHBT: InGaAs collector

Design of low thermal resistance HBT:

Initial design: InGaAs collector


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

SHBT: InGaAs collector, InP emitter

Design of low thermal resistance HBT:

Emitter: InAlAsInP


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

DHBT: InGaAs/InP collector

Design of low thermal resistance HBT:

InGaAs collector  InP collector with InGaAlAs grade


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

DHBT: InGaAs/InP collector, InGaAs/InP subcollector

Design of low thermal resistance HBT:

InGaAs subcollector InGaAs/InP composite subcollector


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

DHBT: InGaAs/InP collector, thin InGaAs/InP subcollector

Design of low thermal resistance HBT:

Thick InGaAs in subcollector thin InGaAs in subcollector


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

Metamorphic-DHBT: InGaAs/InP collector, InGaAs/InP subcollector

Young-Min Kim

Design of low thermal resistance Metamorphic HBT:

InAlAs,InAlP, InGaAs buffersInP buffer


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

Experimental Measurement of Temperature Rise

Temperature rise can be calculated by measuring IC,VCE and DVBE

No thermal instability as long as slope<∞

each VBE gives a unique IC


Thermoelectric feedback coefficient data from w liu

Thermoelectric feedback coefficient (data from W. Liu)

W. Liu: “Thermal Coupling in 2-Finger Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors”

, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol 42 No6, June 1995

W. Liu: H-F. Chau, E. Beam, "Thermal properties and Thermal Instabilities of InP-Based Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol 43 No3, March 1996

Thermoelectric feedback coefficient for AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs 4 % smaller

Not a large influence from material or structure variations


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

InGaAs 3E19 Si 400 Å

InP 3E19 Si 800 Å

InP 8E17 Si 100 Å

InP 3E17 Si 300 Å

InGaAs 8E19  5E19 C 300 Å

Setback 3E16 Si 200 Å

Grade 3E16 Si 240 Å

InP 3E18 Si 30 Å

InP 3E16 Si 1030Å

InP 1.5E19 Si 500 Å

InGaAs 2E19 Si 125Å

InP 3E19 Si 3000Å

SI-InP substrate

High f DHBT Layer Structure and Band Diagram

Vbe = 0.75 V, Vce= 1.3 V

Emitter

Collector

Base

  • Compared to previous UCSB mesa HBT results:

  • Thinner InP collector—decrease c

  • Collector doping increased—increase JKirk

  • Thinner InGaAs in subcollector—remove heat

  • Thicker InP subcollector—decrease Rc,sheet


Thermal resistance results lattice matched

Thermal resistance results: lattice matched

25 nm InGaAs

Measured thermal resistances for lattice matched HBTs. Ic= 5 mA, Vce=1.5 V, P=7.5 mW

12.5 nm InGaAs

50 nm InGaAs 25 nm InGaAs: large improvement


Thermal resistance results metamorphic

Thermal resistance results: metamorphic

50 nm InGaAs

InAlP buffer

Measured thermal resistances for metamorphic HBTs. Ic= 5 mA, Vce=1.5 V, P=7.5 mW

25 nm InGaAs

InP buffer

InAlP InP buffer: large improvement

50 nm InGaAs 25 nm InGaAs: small improvement


Device and circuit results

Device and circuit results

Zach Griffith

Transistor operation at 13 mA/mm2

150 nm InGaAs/InP collector

28 transistor static frequency divider @ fclk=118.7 GHz shown

To be reported, 150 GHz static divider using same Type 1 DHBT structure—chirped superlattice

Continuous operation at high current densities greater than peak rf performance (Je = 8 mA/m2)

370 GHz ft at Jc>8 mA/mm2


Our mesa dhbts have safe operating area extending beyond high speed logic bias conditions

Our Mesa DHBTs have Safe Operating AreaExtending beyond High-Speed Logic Bias Conditions

Low-current breakdown is > 6 Volts

this has little bearing on circuit design

Safe operating area is > 10 mW/um2

these HBTs can be biased ....at ECL voltages ...while carrying the high current densities needed for high speed


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

Conclusions

  • DHBT design with InP subcollector

  •  very low thermal resistance

  • Metamorphic DHBT with InP buffer

  •  low thermal resistance

  • DHBT operation at Jc>13 mA/mm2

  • Optimal device and circuit performance at Jc up to 8 mA/mm2

  • HBT I-V operating area allows static frequency dividers operating at speeds over 150 GHz


Backup slides

Backup slides


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

HBT


Why is thermal management important

Why is thermal management important?

  • As J increases so does the power density. This will lead to an increase in the temperature.

For VCE=1V  PD=10.6mWμm-3

For VCE=1V  PD=98mWμm-3!!


Thermal modeling of hbt 1

Thermal Modeling of HBT (1)

  • 3D Finite Element using Ansys 5.7

  • K (Thermal conductivity) depends temperature

  • K depends on doping

    • For GaAs heavily doped GaAs 65% less than undoped GaAs

    • Unknown for InP or InGaAs use GaAs dependency

Large uncertainty

in values

J.C.Brice in “Properties of Indium phosphide” eds S Adachi and J.Brice pubs INSPEC London p20-21

S Adachi in “Properties of Latticed –Matched and strained Indium Gallium Arsenide” ed P Bhattacharya pubs INSPEC London p34-39

“CRC Materials science and engineering handbook”, 2nd edition ,eds J.F Shackelford,A.Alexander, and J.S Park, pubs CRC press, Boca Raton, p270


Validation of model

Validation of Model

Ian Harrison

Caused by

Low K

of InGaAs

Max T in

Collector

Advice

Limit InGaAs

Increase size of emitter arm

Ave Tj (Base-Emitter) =26.20°C

Measured Tj=26°C

Good agreement.


Analysis of 40 80 160 gbit s devices

Analysis of 40,80,160 Gbit/s devices

Ian Harrison

  • To obtain speed inprovements require to scale other device parameters.

Reduction of

parasitic CBC

Conservative

1.5x bit rate

When not switching

values will double

Device parameters after Rodwell et al


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

Mesa DHBT with 0.6 mm emitter width, 0.5 mm base contact width

Z. Griffith, M Dahlström


High current density and high power density operation of ultra high speed inp dhbts

How we measure thermal resistance


Layout improvement emitter heat sinking

Improved emitter heatsinking

Layout improvement: Emitter heat sinking

Emitter interconnect metal  2 μm to 7 μm

~30 % of heat out through emitter Negligible increase in Cbe


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