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Chapter 10. Food-Related Illnesses and Allergies. Objectives . Identify diseases caused by contaminated food, their signs, and means by which they are spread List signs of food contamination State precautions for protecting food from contamination

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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Food-Related Illnesses and Allergies


  • Identify diseases caused by contaminated food, their signs, and means by which they are spread

  • List signs of food contamination

  • State precautions for protecting food from contamination

  • Describe allergies and elimination diets and their uses

Food related illnesses
Food-Related Illnesses

  • Result from food contaminated with pathogens or chemicals

    • Pathogens can be bacteria, viruses, molds, worms, or protozoa

    • Chemicals can be added to foods intentionally or accidentally through carelessness or pollution


Food related illnesses1
Food-Related Illnesses

  • Food poisoning

    • General term for foodborne illness

    • Includes:

      • Foodborne infection

        • Caused by pathogen

      • Food intoxication

        • Caused by toxins produced by pathogen


Food related illnesses2
Food-Related Illnesses

  • Food poisoning

    • Symptoms:

      • Vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and abdominal cramps

    • May be mistaken for flu

    • May be life-threatening in young children, elderly, or immunocompromised

Bacteria that cause foodborne illness
Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

  • Campylobacter jejuni

  • Clostridium botulinum

  • Clostridium perfringens

  • Cyclospora cayetanensis

  • Escherichia coli (E. coli)


Bacteria that cause foodborne illness1
Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

  • Listeria monocytogenes

  • Salmonellosis

  • Shigella

  • Staphylococcus aureus

Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacter Jejuni

  • One of the most prevalent causes of diarrhea

  • Can contaminate meat during slaughter

  • Symptoms:

    • Diarrhea, fever, headache, muscle and abdominal pain, and nausea


Campylobacter jejuni1
Campylobacter Jejuni

  • Onset is two to five days after infection

  • Transmitted by unpasteurized milk, contaminated water, and raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and shellfish

Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium Botulinum

  • Causes botulism

  • Found on plants and in soil, water, and intestinal tracts of animals and fish

  • Can be produced in sealed containers

    • E.g., cans, jars, and vacuum-packaged foods

    • Great care must be taken when canning foods at home


Clostridium botulinum1
Clostridium Botulinum

  • Symptoms:

    • Double vision, speech difficulties, inability to swallow, and respiratory paralysis

  • Onset is four to 36 hours after eating

  • Rarest, but most deadly of all food poisonings

  • Fatality rate in U.S.:

    • Approximately 65 percent

Clostridium perfringens
Clostridium Perfringens

  • “Cafeteria” or “buffet” germ

  • Transmitted by eating heavily contaminated food

  • Symptoms:

    • Nausea, diarrhea, and inflammation of stomach and intestine


Clostridium perfringens1
Clostridium Perfringens

  • Onset is six to 24 hours after ingestion

  • Prevention:

    • Maintain foods at proper temperature

Cyclospora cayetanensis
Cyclospora Cayetanensis

  • Parasite that causes gastroenteritis

  • Transmitted by poor hygiene and contaminated water

  • Symptoms:

    • Watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, decreased appetite, and low-grade fever


Cyclospora cayetanensis1
Cyclospora Cayetanensis

  • Onset is one week after invasion

  • Prevention:

    • Drink clean water, wash thoroughly, and properly handle produce

E coli
E. Coli

  • Group of bacteria that can cause illness in humans

  • Found in intestines of some mammals, raw milk, and water contaminated by feces


E coli1
E. Coli

  • Transmitted by contaminated water, unpasteurized milk or apple juice, raw or rare ground beef products, unwashed fruits or vegetables, and directly from person-to-person

  • Symptoms:

    • Severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea that may be watery or bloody, and nausea


E coli2
E. Coli

  • Onset is three to nine days after invasion

  • Complications:

    • Hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in children

  • Prevention:

    • Carefully choose and cook food

Listeria monocytogenes
Listeria Monocytogenes

  • Bacteria often found in human and animal intestines, milk, leafy vegetables, and soil

  • Transmitted by unpasteurized dairy foods, leafy raw vegetables, and processed meats

  • Symptoms:

    • Fatigue, fever, chills, headache, backache, abdominal pain, and diarrhea


Listeria monocytogenes1
Listeria Monocytogenes

  • Onset is 12 hours to eight weeks after ingestion

  • Prevention:

    • Thoroughly cook meats and poultry, carefully wash salad greens, and ensure dairy products are pasteurized


  • Found in raw meats, poultry, fish, milk, and eggs

  • Transmitted by eating contaminated food or by contact with carrier

  • Symptoms:

    • Headache, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever



  • Onset is six to 48 hours after invasion

  • Prevention:

    • Properly handle and cook raw foods


  • Found in feces of infected people

  • Typically transmitted by infected food handler with poor handwashing practices

  • Cold foods common carriers



  • Symptoms:

    • Diarrhea, fever, chills, headache, nausea, and abdominal cramps

  • Onset is one to seven days

Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus Aureus

  • Found on human skin, infected cuts, pimples, and in noses and throats

  • Transmitted by carriers and food containing toxin created by bacteria

  • Symptoms:

    • Vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps


Staphylococcus aureus1
Staphylococcus Aureus

  • Onset is 30 minutes to eight hours

  • Prevention:

    • Store and cook food at proper temperature

Stop and share
Stop and Share

  • Consider the following scenario:

    • You are teaching a class about preventing food poisoning. What food preparation safety guidelines will you discuss?


Stop and share1
Stop and Share

  • Cook all meats and poultry thoroughly

    • Ground beef, veal, and lamb

      • 160 degrees Fahrenheit

    • Ground poultry

      • At least 165 degrees Fahrenheit

  • Carefully wash fruits and vegetables


Stop and share2
Stop and Share

  • Avoid unpasteurized milk, dairy products, and vegetable and fruit juices

  • Be especially vigilant if compromised immune system

  • Thaw poultry and meats in refrigerator or microwave and cook immediately


Stop and share3
Stop and Share

  • Avoid cross-contamination of raw and cooked foods

    • Carefully clean utensils and counter surfaces in contact with raw food

  • Do not eat raw or undercooked eggs

    • Nor foods that contain them

  • Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold

Other substances that cause food poisoning
Other Substances That Cause Food Poisoning

  • Mold

  • Trichinella spiralis

  • Protozoa


  • Type of fungus

  • May cause respiratory problems if inhaled

  • Mycotoxin can cause liver and skin damage and eventually cancer



  • Symptoms:

    • Abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea

  • Onset is one day to several months after ingestion

Trichinella spiralis
Trichinella Spiralis

  • Parasitic worm that causes trichinosis

  • Transmitted by eating inadequately cooked pork from infected pigs

  • Onset is 24 hours


Trichinella spiralis1
Trichinella Spiralis

  • Symptoms:

    • Abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, chills, and muscle pain

  • Cook all pork to internal temperature of at least 170 degrees Fahrenheit

Protozoa dysentery
Protozoa (Dysentery)

  • Introduced to food by carriers or contaminated water

  • Symptoms:

    • Severe diarrhea that can occur intermittently

Prevention of foodborne illnesses
Prevention of Foodborne Illnesses

  • Have clean kitchen and equipment

  • Properly wash hands

  • Wear gloves if cooking with any hand wound

  • Cover and store foods to prevent microbes or animals from reaching it

  • Prepare, cook, and store foods to appropriate temperatures


Prevention of foodborne illnesses1
Prevention of Foodborne Illnesses

  • Prevent known carriers from preparing foods

  • Select only packages and jars that were sealed by manufacturer

  • Avoid bulging cans, foods that look or smell odd, and foods showing signs of mold

Miscellaneous food poisoning
Miscellaneous Food Poisoning

  • Ingestion of the following:

    • Plants or animals that contain poison

      • E.g., mushrooms, rhubarb leaves, fish from polluted water

    • Cleaning agents

    • Insecticides

    • Drugs

Food allergies
Food Allergies

  • Occurs when immune system reacts to food substance

    • Usually a protein

  • Food intolerance does not involve immune system

  • Allergic reactions can be life-threatening

Types of allergic reactions
Types of Allergic Reactions

  • Hay fever

  • Urticaria

  • Edema

  • Headache

  • Dermatitis

  • Nausea

  • Dizziness

  • Asthma

Treatment of allergies
Treatment of Allergies

  • Removal of allergen when identified

  • To identify:

    • Food diary

    • Laboratory tests

    • Client education

    • Elimination diet

Elimination diet
Elimination Diet

  • Limited diet in which only certain foods are allowed in attempt to pinpoint food allergen causing reaction

  • Additional foods introduced slowly until allergic reaction occurs

Common food allergens
Common Food Allergens

  • Milk

  • Wheat

  • Corn

  • Eggs

  • Citrus fruit

  • Strawberries

  • Tomatoes

  • Legumes

  • Tree nuts

  • Peanuts

  • Chocolate

  • Soybeans

  • Pork

  • Fish

  • Shellfish

Teaching considerations
Teaching Considerations

  • Avoid microbial contamination of food supplies at home

  • Read food labels

  • Ask about food ingredients at restaurant or another person’s home


  • Human ignorance or carelessness usually cause of food infection or poisoning

  • Many food handling safety factors can prevent food contamination

  • Most common food allergens:

    • Milk, chocolate, eggs, tomatoes, fish, citrus fruit, legumes, strawberries, and wheat