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Chapter 10. Food-Related Illnesses and Allergies. Objectives. Identify diseases caused by contaminated food, their signs, and means by which they are spread List signs of food contamination State precautions for protecting food from contamination

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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Food-Related Illnesses and Allergies



  • Identify diseases caused by contaminated food, their signs, and means by which they are spread

  • List signs of food contamination

  • State precautions for protecting food from contamination

  • Describe allergies and elimination diets and their uses

Food related illnesses

Food-Related Illnesses

  • Result from food contaminated with pathogens or chemicals

    • Pathogens can be bacteria, viruses, molds, worms, or protozoa

    • Chemicals can be added to foods intentionally or accidentally through carelessness or pollution


Food related illnesses1

Food-Related Illnesses

  • Food poisoning

    • General term for foodborne illness

    • Includes:

      • Foodborne infection

        • Caused by pathogen

      • Food intoxication

        • Caused by toxins produced by pathogen


Food related illnesses2

Food-Related Illnesses

  • Food poisoning

    • Symptoms:

      • Vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and abdominal cramps

    • May be mistaken for flu

    • May be life-threatening in young children, elderly, or immunocompromised

Bacteria that cause foodborne illness

Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

  • Campylobacter jejuni

  • Clostridium botulinum

  • Clostridium perfringens

  • Cyclospora cayetanensis

  • Escherichia coli (E. coli)


Bacteria that cause foodborne illness1

Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

  • Listeria monocytogenes

  • Salmonellosis

  • Shigella

  • Staphylococcus aureus

Campylobacter jejuni

Campylobacter Jejuni

  • One of the most prevalent causes of diarrhea

  • Can contaminate meat during slaughter

  • Symptoms:

    • Diarrhea, fever, headache, muscle and abdominal pain, and nausea


Campylobacter jejuni1

Campylobacter Jejuni

  • Onset is two to five days after infection

  • Transmitted by unpasteurized milk, contaminated water, and raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and shellfish

Clostridium botulinum

Clostridium Botulinum

  • Causes botulism

  • Found on plants and in soil, water, and intestinal tracts of animals and fish

  • Can be produced in sealed containers

    • E.g., cans, jars, and vacuum-packaged foods

    • Great care must be taken when canning foods at home


Clostridium botulinum1

Clostridium Botulinum

  • Symptoms:

    • Double vision, speech difficulties, inability to swallow, and respiratory paralysis

  • Onset is four to 36 hours after eating

  • Rarest, but most deadly of all food poisonings

  • Fatality rate in U.S.:

    • Approximately 65 percent

Clostridium perfringens

Clostridium Perfringens

  • “Cafeteria” or “buffet” germ

  • Transmitted by eating heavily contaminated food

  • Symptoms:

    • Nausea, diarrhea, and inflammation of stomach and intestine


Clostridium perfringens1

Clostridium Perfringens

  • Onset is six to 24 hours after ingestion

  • Prevention:

    • Maintain foods at proper temperature

Cyclospora cayetanensis

Cyclospora Cayetanensis

  • Parasite that causes gastroenteritis

  • Transmitted by poor hygiene and contaminated water

  • Symptoms:

    • Watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, decreased appetite, and low-grade fever


Cyclospora cayetanensis1

Cyclospora Cayetanensis

  • Onset is one week after invasion

  • Prevention:

    • Drink clean water, wash thoroughly, and properly handle produce

E coli

E. Coli

  • Group of bacteria that can cause illness in humans

  • Found in intestines of some mammals, raw milk, and water contaminated by feces


E coli1

E. Coli

  • Transmitted by contaminated water, unpasteurized milk or apple juice, raw or rare ground beef products, unwashed fruits or vegetables, and directly from person-to-person

  • Symptoms:

    • Severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea that may be watery or bloody, and nausea


E coli2

E. Coli

  • Onset is three to nine days after invasion

  • Complications:

    • Hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in children

  • Prevention:

    • Carefully choose and cook food

Listeria monocytogenes

Listeria Monocytogenes

  • Bacteria often found in human and animal intestines, milk, leafy vegetables, and soil

  • Transmitted by unpasteurized dairy foods, leafy raw vegetables, and processed meats

  • Symptoms:

    • Fatigue, fever, chills, headache, backache, abdominal pain, and diarrhea


Listeria monocytogenes1

Listeria Monocytogenes

  • Onset is 12 hours to eight weeks after ingestion

  • Prevention:

    • Thoroughly cook meats and poultry, carefully wash salad greens, and ensure dairy products are pasteurized



  • Found in raw meats, poultry, fish, milk, and eggs

  • Transmitted by eating contaminated food or by contact with carrier

  • Symptoms:

    • Headache, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever




  • Onset is six to 48 hours after invasion

  • Prevention:

    • Properly handle and cook raw foods



  • Found in feces of infected people

  • Typically transmitted by infected food handler with poor handwashing practices

  • Cold foods common carriers




  • Symptoms:

    • Diarrhea, fever, chills, headache, nausea, and abdominal cramps

  • Onset is one to seven days

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus Aureus

  • Found on human skin, infected cuts, pimples, and in noses and throats

  • Transmitted by carriers and food containing toxin created by bacteria

  • Symptoms:

    • Vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps


Staphylococcus aureus1

Staphylococcus Aureus

  • Onset is 30 minutes to eight hours

  • Prevention:

    • Store and cook food at proper temperature

Stop and share

Stop and Share

  • Consider the following scenario:

    • You are teaching a class about preventing food poisoning. What food preparation safety guidelines will you discuss?


Stop and share1

Stop and Share

  • Cook all meats and poultry thoroughly

    • Ground beef, veal, and lamb

      • 160 degrees Fahrenheit

    • Ground poultry

      • At least 165 degrees Fahrenheit

  • Carefully wash fruits and vegetables


Stop and share2

Stop and Share

  • Avoid unpasteurized milk, dairy products, and vegetable and fruit juices

  • Be especially vigilant if compromised immune system

  • Thaw poultry and meats in refrigerator or microwave and cook immediately


Stop and share3

Stop and Share

  • Avoid cross-contamination of raw and cooked foods

    • Carefully clean utensils and counter surfaces in contact with raw food

  • Do not eat raw or undercooked eggs

    • Nor foods that contain them

  • Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold

Other substances that cause food poisoning

Other Substances That Cause Food Poisoning

  • Mold

  • Trichinella spiralis

  • Protozoa

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  • Type of fungus

  • May cause respiratory problems if inhaled

  • Mycotoxin can cause liver and skin damage and eventually cancer


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  • Symptoms:

    • Abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea

  • Onset is one day to several months after ingestion

Trichinella spiralis

Trichinella Spiralis

  • Parasitic worm that causes trichinosis

  • Transmitted by eating inadequately cooked pork from infected pigs

  • Onset is 24 hours


Trichinella spiralis1

Trichinella Spiralis

  • Symptoms:

    • Abdominal pain, vomiting, fever, chills, and muscle pain

  • Cook all pork to internal temperature of at least 170 degrees Fahrenheit

Protozoa dysentery

Protozoa (Dysentery)

  • Introduced to food by carriers or contaminated water

  • Symptoms:

    • Severe diarrhea that can occur intermittently

Prevention of foodborne illnesses

Prevention of Foodborne Illnesses

  • Have clean kitchen and equipment

  • Properly wash hands

  • Wear gloves if cooking with any hand wound

  • Cover and store foods to prevent microbes or animals from reaching it

  • Prepare, cook, and store foods to appropriate temperatures


Prevention of foodborne illnesses1

Prevention of Foodborne Illnesses

  • Prevent known carriers from preparing foods

  • Select only packages and jars that were sealed by manufacturer

  • Avoid bulging cans, foods that look or smell odd, and foods showing signs of mold

Miscellaneous food poisoning

Miscellaneous Food Poisoning

  • Ingestion of the following:

    • Plants or animals that contain poison

      • E.g., mushrooms, rhubarb leaves, fish from polluted water

    • Cleaning agents

    • Insecticides

    • Drugs

Food allergies

Food Allergies

  • Occurs when immune system reacts to food substance

    • Usually a protein

  • Food intolerance does not involve immune system

  • Allergic reactions can be life-threatening

Types of allergic reactions

Types of Allergic Reactions

  • Hay fever

  • Urticaria

  • Edema

  • Headache

  • Dermatitis

  • Nausea

  • Dizziness

  • Asthma

Treatment of allergies

Treatment of Allergies

  • Removal of allergen when identified

  • To identify:

    • Food diary

    • Laboratory tests

    • Client education

    • Elimination diet

Elimination diet

Elimination Diet

  • Limited diet in which only certain foods are allowed in attempt to pinpoint food allergen causing reaction

  • Additional foods introduced slowly until allergic reaction occurs

Common food allergens

Common Food Allergens

  • Milk

  • Wheat

  • Corn

  • Eggs

  • Citrus fruit

  • Strawberries

  • Tomatoes

  • Legumes

  • Tree nuts

  • Peanuts

  • Chocolate

  • Soybeans

  • Pork

  • Fish

  • Shellfish

Teaching considerations

Teaching Considerations

  • Avoid microbial contamination of food supplies at home

  • Read food labels

  • Ask about food ingredients at restaurant or another person’s home



  • Human ignorance or carelessness usually cause of food infection or poisoning

  • Many food handling safety factors can prevent food contamination

  • Most common food allergens:

    • Milk, chocolate, eggs, tomatoes, fish, citrus fruit, legumes, strawberries, and wheat

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