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Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS. In this lesson, you will Learn About… Common STDs. How people may become infected with HIV and develop AIDS. What is being done to fight AIDS. How to protect yourself from STDs. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS.

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sexually transmitted diseases and hiv aids
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS

In this lesson, you will Learn About…

  • Common STDs.
  • How people may become infected with HIV and develop AIDS.
  • What is being done to fight AIDS.
  • How to protect yourself from STDs.
sexually transmitted diseases and hiv aids1
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS

The Vocabularyterms in this lesson are:

  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
  • Chlamydia.
  • Genital warts.
  • Genital herpes.
  • Gonorrhea.
  • Syphilis.
  • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).
  • AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
what are sexually transmitted diseases
What Are Sexually Transmitted Diseases?

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contact.

Knowing the causes of STDs and their symptoms can help keep you safe from these serious infections.

the facts about stds
The Facts About STDs

When you know the facts about STDs, you have the power to avoid them.

Someone who has an STD may not have visible symptoms or may have symptoms that come and go. However, such a person may be contagious even when there are no symptoms.

STDs can make a person sterile or infertile.

A person who suspects that he or she is infected with an STD must see a doctor.

Not all STDs are curable, and some are even fatal.

STDs can be prevented by avoiding sexual activity

and by not injecting drugs.

Vaccines are not available for most STDs.

common stds
Common STDs

Chlamydia is a bacterial STD that may affect the reproductive organs, urethra, and anus.

Symptoms of chlamydia, which are not present in many cases, may include a genital discharge and a burning sensation during urination.

common stds cont d
Common STDs (cont’d.)

Genital warts are growths or bumps in the genital area caused by certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Many people will not develop genital warts until long after they have been exposed, so they may not know that they are passing the virus to others.

Genital warts has been linked to cervical cancer.

common stds cont d1
Common STDs (cont’d.)

Genital herpes is a viral STD that produces painful blisters in the genital area.

The herpes virus may remain inactive in a person’s body, causing no symptoms.

Some people, though, have periodic outbreaks of painful blisters or sores.

common stds cont d2
Common STDs (cont’d.)

Gonorrhea is a bacterial STD that affects the mucous membranes of the body, particularly in the genital area.

Symptoms of gonorrhea may include a thick, yellow discharge from the genitals and burning during urination.

If left untreated, this infection can cause sterility in men and infertility in women.

common stds cont d3
Common STDs (cont’d.)

Syphilis is a bacterial STD that can affect many parts of the body.

Symptoms of syphilis vary as the disease progresses.

Early symptoms may include only a painless sore at the site where the infection entered the body and swollen lymph glands in the genital area.

common stds cont d4
Common STDs (cont’d.)

Hepatitis B is a liver disease that can be transmitted through sexual contact.

It is the only STD for which a vaccine is available.

hiv and aids
HIV and AIDS

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS.

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a deadly disease that interferes with body’s ability to fight infection.

A person who is infected with HIV may not show any signs of illness for long time.

hiv and aids cont d
HIV and AIDS (cont’d.)

HIV and AIDS damage the body in the following way:

  • Even before the infected person starts showing signs of illness, the virus seriously damages the infected person’s immune system.
  • When the system’s defenses are critically weakened, the body becomes unable to fight off other infections and diseases, which eventually prove fatal.
how hiv attacks the body
How HIV Attacks the Body

1 Virus invades and destroys T cell.

2 Virus multiplies and destroys more T cells.

3 The immune system loses its ability to fight infection.

the spread of hiv
The Spread of HIV

HIV is almost always spread in one of the following ways:

  • Having any form of sexual intercourse with an infected person.
  • Using a contaminated needle.
  • Other modes of transmission:
    • Blood transfusions
    • From mother to child, before birth, during birth, or through breast feeding
how hiv is not spread
How HIV Is Not Spread

Through the air—for example,

by coughing or sneezing

Sharing utensils or dishes

with an infected person

Swimming in the same pool as an infected person

Bites from

mosquitoes,

ticks, or other

insects

Nonsexual

contact with

an HIV-infected

person, such

as shaking

hands or

hugging

Donating blood

Using the same telephone, shower, bathtub, or toilet as an infected person

Using the same

clothing, towel,

sports equipment,

comb, or furniture

as an infected person

battling aids
Battling AIDS

Scientists, health care professionals, educators, and many others have joined the fight against AIDS.

Combinations of powerful drugs can dramatically reduce HIV levels in the blood and prolong the life expectancy of many HIV-infected people.

battling aids cont d
Battling AIDS (cont’d.)

Scientists are also working to develop an HIV vaccine. However, because the virus occurs in many forms, a vaccine that works against one form of HIV may not work against another.

With neither a cure for AIDS nor an effective HIV vaccine currently available, educating people about preventing the spread of HIV is crucial.

abstinence before marriage
Abstinence Before Marriage

Sexual activity before marriage can have many negative consequences including:

  • Physical consequences such as STDs and unplanned pregnancy.
  • Less obvious effects such as social problems and emotional trauma.

The only 100 percent effective method of protecting yourself from the harmful consequences of sexual activity is abstinence from sexual activity before marriage.

abstinence before marriage cont d
Abstinence Before Marriage (cont’d.)

Protecting yourself from the harmful consequences of sexual activity has many advantages:

  • You protect yourself from unplanned pregnancy and STDs, including HIV infection.
  • You get to know someone in a way that goes beyond physical attraction.
  • You show respect for the wishes of your family.
abstinence before marriage cont d1
Abstinence Before Marriage (cont’d.)

It is normal to feel physically attracted to another person and have sexual feelings.

If you have questions about these feelings, discuss them openly and honestly with your parents or guardians.

You can acknowledge your feelings responsibly by showing affection in ways that do not risk your health or compromise values.

abstinence before marriage cont d2
Abstinence Before Marriage (cont’d.)

By practicing abstinence from sexual activity before marriage:

  • You can be sure that your relationships are built on shared interests and mutual trust rather than on sexual attraction.
  • You are more likely to enjoy a mutually faithful sexual relationship with your future mate.
reviewing terms and facts
Reviewing Terms and Facts
  • Define the term sexually transmitted diseases.

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contact.

reviewing terms and facts1
Reviewing Terms and Facts
  • How are genital warts different from genital herpes?

Genital warts are growths or bumps in the genital area caused by certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Genital herpes is a viral STD that produces painful blisters in the genital area.

thinking critically
Thinking Critically
  • What factors do you think make STDs especially dangerous?
vocabulary review
Vocabulary Review

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contact.

vocabulary review1
Vocabulary Review

Chlamydia is a bacterial STD that may affect the reproductive organs, urethra, and anus.

vocabulary review2
Vocabulary Review

Genital warts are growths or bumps in the genital area caused by certain types of the human papillomavirus (HPV).

vocabulary review3
Vocabulary Review

Genital herpes is a viral STD that produces painful blisters in the genital area.

vocabulary review4
Vocabulary Review

Gonorrhea is a bacterial STD that affects the mucous membranes of the body, particularly in the genital area.

vocabulary review5
Vocabulary Review

Syphilis is a bacterial STD that can affect many parts of the body.

vocabulary review6
Vocabulary Review

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS.

vocabulary review7
Vocabulary Review

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a deadly disease that interferes with body’s ability to fight infection.

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