Research Ethics Controversies, Then and Now. Jeffrey P. Baker MD PhD Trent Center for Bioethics, Humanities, and History of Medicine Duke University. Objectives. Briefly review the history of research ethics in the United States Examine several controversies in more detail
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Research Ethics Controversies, Then and Now
Jeffrey P. Baker MD PhD
Trent Center for Bioethics, Humanities, and History of Medicine
What were the ethical norms for human subject research in 1796?
“I will use my power to help the sick to the best of my ability and judgment; I will abstain from harming or wronging any man by it”
Does not directly address human experimentation… but might permit it so long as risks minimal and outweighed by potential benefit
“Among the experiments that may be tried on man, those that can only harm are forbidden, those that are innocent are permissible, and those that may do good are obligatory”
“We have no right to use patients entrusted to our care for the purpose of experimentation unless direct benefit to the individual is likely to follow”
--Francis Peabody, Harvard physician
--Letter to Walter Cannon, 1916
The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.
Students from the Fernald School, 1954
Betrayal of Trust
“One of the real ludicrous aspects of talking about a prisoner being a captive, and therefore needing more protection than others, is that there’s nobody more captive than a sick person”
From oral history interview, Dr Thomas Chalmers
Experiments in Nature
Staten Island, New Jersey, 1955-1972
Dr Saul Krugman
Syphilis Studies:Tuskegeee and Guatemala
“Guatemala Victims of US Syphilis Study still haunted by the ‘devil’s experiment” The Guardian