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Mongols. Eurasia. Steppe Vast belt of dry grassland Little rainfall and extreme temperatures changes Served as a land trade route Home to nomadic people Western steppe- Hittites and Aryans Eastern Steppe- Huns, Turks and Mongols. Nomadic people. Pastoralists -

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  • Steppe

    • Vast belt of dry grassland

    • Little rainfall and extreme temperatures changes

  • Served as a land trade route

  • Home to nomadic people

    • Western steppe- Hittites and Aryans

    • Eastern Steppe- Huns, Turks and Mongols

Nomadic people
Nomadic people

  • Pastoralists-

    • herded domesticated animals- Horse will be very important

    • follow seasonal patterns that included returning to same campsites

    • Lived in Yurts- portable felt tents

  • Lived and travel in clans

    • Kinship groups that were descendants from a common ancestor

  • Often fought over grassland and water rights

    • Sometimes clans would join together to fight a common enemy


  • Superb horsemen and archers

  • Could of become a world power early on, if had not had

    • Rivalries between tribes and clans that kept them from unifying

    • Fighting kept them fairly isolated from the rest of the world

Temujin genghis khan
TemujinGenghis Khan

  • 1200 will unite the Mongol clans

  • Assumed the title of Genghis Khan (Chingiss Kahn)

  • Universal leader

    • Will lead Mongols for 21 years

  • First goal to invade China- later the Islamic region west of Mongolia

  • By 1221 Central Asia under Mongol control

  • Largest empire the world had ever seen

Characteristics of genghis khan
Characteristics of Genghis Khan

  • Brilliant organizer

  • Gift Strategist

  • Adopted new weapons and technologies used by his enemies

    • Bows & arrows

    • Bronze cannons

    • Iron mace

    • hatchets

  • Military divided into units called tumens

  • Used cruelty as a weapon- terrify his enemies into surrendering

    • Battle field tactic

      • Pretend to retreat and then send in the heavy cavalry on the flanks

  • Very superstitious

  • Only thing he feared was dogs

  • Genghis Khan’s Imperial rule

    • Legal code

      • To end division and quarrels between clans

    • Promote growth and trade

    • Religious tolerance

    • Overall peace to Asia

      • Once established

  • Empire so large that it was split into hordes

    • Small independent empires

      • Golden Horde

        • Modern day Russia

  • Empire allow for exchange of goods, ideas and culture from one distant region to another

    • Mongols had been illiterate and nomadic but after Genghis Khan’s conquest they assimilated into the cultures of the people they had defeated

The mongols golden horde
The MONGOLS [“Golden Horde”]

  • Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws:

    • If you do not pay homage, we will take your prosperity.

    • If you do not have prosperity, we will take your children.

    • If you do not have children, we will take your wife.

    • If you do not have a wife, we will take your head.

  • Used cruelty as a weapon --> some areas never recovered from Mongol destruction!

Key to mongolian victories
Key to Mongolian victories

  • Stirrup- enable mounted warrior to stand , turn and shoot arrows behind him

Genghis khan death
Genghis Khan death

  • Dies from illness in 1227

  • Grave is unmark to prevent enemies from desecrating the body

  • Mongol empire

    • They did not attempt to force a unified religion or way of life

    • Their infrastructure allowed for the exchange and spread of ideas

      • It just was not their own culture


  • Ogadai will succeed his father

  • Became known as the GreatKhan

  • Upon his death empire is divided into 4 large Khanates

    • Each ruled by a descendant of Genghis Khan

  • 1260 AD Kublai Khan will declare himself to be the Great Khan

Golden horne
Golden Horne

  • Russia

    • Invaded by Mongols in 13th century

    • Russia had been a number of small kingdoms

      • Centered on trading cities

      • Russia princes refused to cooperate and were individually remove by Mongols

    • Result of Mongol tribute will be the Russian peasants reduced to serfdom

    • Moscow will thrive because their princes collect the tribute for the Mongols and because it was seat of the Orthodox church

  • Impact of Mongol rule of Russia

    • Isolation of Russia from Western Europe

    • Will not experience the Renaissance and Reformation

  • Ilkhan Khanate

    • Muslim heartland

    • End the Abbasid dynasty

      • Destroy Baghdad and other major Islamic focal points

    • Bring about the decline of Seljuk Turks

Mongol peace
Mongol Peace

  • Mongol Peace

    • Mongols imposed stability and law across Eurasia.

    • Trade will increase between Europe and Asia

    • Ideas and inventions will spread into Europe

  • Historians believe that bubonic plague was first spread by Mongols

    • Kill more with the plague than through warfare

Kublai khan
Kublai Khan unified land empire in history

  • Founder of Yuan Dynasty

  • Important because it will unite China for first time in 300 years

  • Open China to greater foreign contacts and trade

  • Kublai Khan will spend most of his life in China unified land empire in history

  • Will enjoy living luxurious manner of a Chinese emperor

  • Will even dress Chinese

  • Built new capital at Beijing

    • According to Marco Polo “the largest that was ever seen”

  • Yuan social order unified land empire in history

    • Mongols

    • Muslims & central Asian allies rank below Mongols

  • Kublai Khan maintain separation of Mongols and Chinese by

    • Keeping military forces separate

    • Allowing only women of nomadic families in imperial harem

    • Forbidden intermarriage of Mongols and Chinese

    • Not allowing Chinese scholars to learn Mongol script

  • Mongols will continue the policy of religious tolerance unified land empire in history

  • Status of merchants and artist will improve under the Yuan dynasty

  • Mongols will not use the examination system

    • To keep the scholar-gentry from gaining too much power

  • Mongolian women

    • will not adopt the Chinese practices of foot binding

    • Will remain somewhat independent

    • Retain right of property

Invasion of japan
Invasion of unified land empire in historyJapan

  • Will attempt to extend rule to Japan

  • Will send the largest seaborne invasion force in history (up to WWII)

    • Fought for 53 days to a standstill

    • 54th day a storm with strong winds will hit and devasted the Kublai Khan’s fleet

  • Kamikaze- divine wind that will save Japan

  • Mongols in China have little in common with Chinese subjects unified land empire in history

    • Mongols live apart and even obey different laws

    • Mongols will hold most of the highest government posts

    • Many jobs also given to foreigners

      • Mongols felt that foreigners were more trustworthy because they had no local loyalties

Marco polo
Marco Polo unified land empire in history

  • Most famous European to visit China

    • Venetian trader

  • Greatly respected by Kublai Khan

    • Sent on special mission around empire

  • Will later describes his adventures in a book about China

    • Book will be an instant hit but many will not believe a word of it.

    • Believed it was just tall tales

      • Examples- black stones that burn (coal)

Kublai khan1
Kublai Khan unified land empire in history

  • Dies in 1294 AD at the age of 80

  • Yuan dynasty will continue for 74 more years

  • Problems with famine, flood, disease and economic problems

    • At one point over 4 different Khans will take the title in 18 years

  • 1368 Ming Dynasty will begin