Speech perception day 16 oct 2 2013
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Speech Perception DAY 16 – oct 2, 2013. Brain & Language LING 4110-4890-5110-7960 NSCI 4110-4891-6110 Harry Howard Tulane University. Course organization. The syllabus, these slides and my recordings are available at http://www.tulane.edu/~howard/LING4110/ .

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Speech Perception DAY 16 – oct 2, 2013

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Speech perception day 16 oct 2 2013

Speech PerceptionDAY 16 – oct 2, 2013

Brain & Language

LING 4110-4890-5110-7960

NSCI 4110-4891-6110

Harry Howard

Tulane University


Course organization

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University

Course organization

  • The syllabus, these slides and my recordings are available at http://www.tulane.edu/~howard/LING4110/.

  • If you want to learn more about EEG and neurolinguistics, you are welcome to participate in my lab. This is also a good way to get started on an honor's thesis.

  • The grades are posted to Blackboard.


Review

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University

Review

Speech recognition


Linguistic model fig 2 1 p 37

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University

Linguistic model, Fig. 2.1 p. 37

Discourse model

Semantics

Sentence level

Syntax

Sentence prosody

Word level

Morphology

Word prosody

Segmental phonology

perception

Segmental phonology

production

Acoustic phonetics Feature extraction

Articulatory phonetics Speech motor control

INPUT


Summary of speech recognition details in ingram

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University

Summary of speech recognitionDetails in Ingram

  • It is bottom up.

    • Lexical knowledge of the input would be helpful, but it doesn’t make the process much easier.

    • “Speech perception involves phonological parsing prior to lexical access.”

  • Its output are phonological items/targets.

    • These targets are abstract

      • They include both acoustic and articulatory information [features].

      • They are normalized across rate, style, and speaker.

      • They may be underspecified.

      • They are discrete.

    • … and organized into a hierarchy.

  • It is/may be different from other kinds of auditory perception …

    • … so it may require special, species-specific neural machinery.


Speech perception

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University

speech Perception

Ingram §6


The speech mode hypothesis smh

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University

The speech mode hypothesis (SMH)

  • Speed of speech vs. non-speech perception

    • The articulators move at the rate of 8-10 phones per second

      • = 3-4 syllables per second

      • = 2-3 words per second.

    • Early researchers tried to build a machine for reading to the blind [the auditory cipher] which converted each letter to a different non-speech sound and found that no one could understand it at greater than 2-3 sounds per second, which is about a quarter of the rate at which speech is understood.

  • What to do about this inconsistency?


Speech is different

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University

Speech is different!

  • How so?

  • Speech perception is different from other forms of auditory perception because its targets are linked to a specialized system for their production …

    • … which we might engage when we listen to speech.

    • Motor theory of speech perception

    • Speech mode hypothesis


Can you turn your speech mode off

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University

Can you turn your speech mode off?

What is this?

It is this.


Weak vs strong versions of smh

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University

Weak vs. strong versions of SMH

  • What does such a distinction mean?

  • The weak speech mode hypothesis

    • When we listen to speech, we engage our knowledge of language.

  • The strong speech mode hypothesis

    • When we listen to speech, we engage perceptual mechanisms specialized for speech.

  • In the next few slides, we go over the evidence for the latter.


D ichotic listening

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University

Dichotic listening


Intermission voice onset time vot

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University

Intermission: Voice onset time (VOT)

[b]

[p]

[pʰ]


Categorical perception

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University

Categorical perception

The Clinton-Kennedy continuum

Chinchillas do this too!


Next time

Brain & Language, Harry Howard, Tulane University

NEXT TIME

Finish Ingram §6.

☞ Go over questions at end of chapter.


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