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Nonphotorealistic rendering. Computational Photography, 6.882 Bill Freeman Fredo Durand May 9, 2006 Drawing from: NPR Siggraph 1999 course, Green et al. npr_course_Sig99.pdf. Photorealism. Physically realistic computer graphics rendering

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Nonphotorealistic rendering
Nonphotorealistic rendering

Computational Photography, 6.882

Bill Freeman

Fredo Durand

May 9, 2006

Drawing from: NPR Siggraph 1999 course, Green et al. npr_course_Sig99.pdf


Photorealism
Photorealism

  • Physically realistic computer graphics rendering

  • Images with photographic quality (eg Vermeer, 1632-1675, accused by critics of being cold, inartistic, and displaying ‘spiritual poverty’).

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf


Are these images non photorealistic renderings
Are these images non-photorealistic renderings?

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf


Non photorealistic rendering
Non-photorealistic rendering

  • Expressive, artistic, painterly, interpretative rendering.

  • Not aspiring to realism.

  • Early work: natural media emulation

    • Pen and ink

    • Watercolor

    • Oil on canvas

  • Attempts to capture the low-level style.

  • Simulations of technical illustration.

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf



Comparing photorealism and npr stuart green
Comparing photorealism and NPR (Stuart Green)

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf



Statistical techniques to simulate expression
Statistical techniques to simulate expression

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf


Paintings are not solutions to well posed problems
“Paintings are not solutions to well-posed problems…”

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf


Daniel Teece

http://pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~mario/npr/projects/sigg03/lec8/hand_1.pdf


Organization of npr methods
Organization of NPR methods

  • Automated methods

    • 2-d processing

    • 3-d processing

  • Interactive methods

    • 2-d processing

    • 3-d processing


Organization of npr methods1
Organization of NPR methods

  • Automated methods

    • 2-d processing

    • 3-d processing

  • Interactive methods

    • 2-d processing

    • 3-d processing


2/2.5 D, no user intervention

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf


http://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdfhttp://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf


Issues in image style translation
Issues in image style translationhttp://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf

  • Fitting

  • Translation


http://people.csail.mit.edu/billf/papers/p33-t_freeman.pdfhttp://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf


http://people.csail.mit.edu/billf/papers/p33-t_freeman.pdfhttp://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf


Input traced line drawing
Input traced line drawinghttp://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf

This example will illustrate the tension between fitting and translation

http://people.csail.mit.edu/billf/papers/p33-t_freeman.pdf


Input drawinghttp://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf

1-NN fit to input,

style 1

Translation to style 2

http://people.csail.mit.edu/billf/papers/p33-t_freeman.pdf


Input drawinghttp://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf

1-NN fit to input,

style 1

Translation to style 2

Bad fit, good translation

http://people.csail.mit.edu/billf/papers/p33-t_freeman.pdf


Input drawinghttp://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf

5904-NN fit to input,

style 1

Translation

to style 2.

http://people.csail.mit.edu/billf/papers/p33-t_freeman.pdf


Input drawinghttp://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf

5904-NN fit to input,

style 1

Translation

to style 2.

Good fit, bad translation

http://people.csail.mit.edu/billf/papers/p33-t_freeman.pdf


Input drawinghttp://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf

6-NN fit to input,

style 1

http://people.csail.mit.edu/billf/papers/p33-t_freeman.pdf


Input drawinghttp://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf

6-NN fit to input,

style 1

Translation to style 2

Good fit, good translation

http://people.csail.mit.edu/billf/papers/p33-t_freeman.pdf


style 1http://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf

style 2

style 3

http://people.csail.mit.edu/billf/papers/p33-t_freeman.pdf


http://people.csail.mit.edu/billf/papers/p33-t_freeman.pdfhttp://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf


6-NN fit to input,http://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf

style 1

Translation to style 3

http://people.csail.mit.edu/billf/papers/p33-t_freeman.pdf


http://mrl.nyu.edu/projects/image-analogies/http://www.mrl.nyu.edu/publications/hertzmann-thesis/hertzmann-thesis-72dpi.pdf


http://mrl.nyu.edu/publications/image-analogies/analogies-72dpi.pdfhttp://mrl.nyu.edu/publications/image-analogies/analogies-72dpi.pdf


Image analogies applications
Image analogies applicationshttp://mrl.nyu.edu/publications/image-analogies/analogies-72dpi.pdf






Texture transfer
Texture Transfer pairs?

  • Take the texture from one object and “paint” it onto another object

    • This requires separating texture and shape

    • That’s HARD, but we can cheat

    • Assume we can capture shape by boundary and rough shading

Then, just add another constraint when sampling: similarity to underlying image at that spot

http://people.csail.mit.edu/billf/papers/efrosFreeman.pdf


Source pairs?

correspondence

image

Target

correspondence image

Source

texture

Target image

http://people.csail.mit.edu/billf/papers/efrosFreeman.pdf



A pairs?

A’


B pairs?


B’ pairs?


B’ pairs?



Organization of npr methods2
Organization of NPR methods pairs?

  • Automated methods

    • 2-d processing

    • 3-d processing

  • Interactive methods

    • 2-d processing

    • 3-d processing





Gooch and gooch
Gooch and Gooch pairs?

  • Concentrate on the material property and shading aspects of technical illustration.


Some characteristics of technical illustrations
Some characteristics of technical illustrations pairs?

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf





Some parameterization dependent lines pairs?

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf




Line weight variations
Line weight variations pairs?

Line weight varied to emphasize perspective

Outer edges thicker

Equal weight

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf





Technical illustrations1
Technical illustrations pairs?

Shading





Encoding surface orientation by color temperature
Encoding surface orientation by color temperature pairs?

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf



Combining color temp surface orientation coding with some tonal variations in object color
Combining color-temp surface orientation coding with some tonal variations in object color

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf


Parameter setting 1
Parameter setting # 1 tonal variations in object color

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf


Parameter setting 2
Parameter setting # 2 tonal variations in object color

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf



Metal object with anisotropic reflections
Metal object with anisotropic reflections tonal variations in object color

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf


Metal object with anisotropic reflections1
Metal object with anisotropic reflections tonal variations in object color

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf

“Lines are streaked in the direction of the axis of minimum curvature, parallel to the milling axis.”




3d little user intervention
3D, little user intervention tonal variations in object color

http://www.cs.utah.edu/npr/papers/npr_course_Sig99.pdf


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