Livestock and the environment
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Livestock and the Environment. Johanna Davis. Agricultural Concerns. Federal & State Environmental Laws Endangered Species Act. B. Environmental Problems of Livestock Production. 1. Changes in Livestock Production. Trend toward larger livestock operations

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Livestock and the environment

Livestock and the Environment

Johanna Davis

Agricultural concerns

Agricultural Concerns

  • Federal & State Environmental Laws

  • Endangered Species Act

B environmental problems of livestock production

B. Environmental Problems of Livestock Production

1 changes in livestock production

1. Changes in Livestock Production

  • Trend toward larger livestock operations

  • Use of large livestock confinement systems such as feedlots

2 changing environment of agriculture

2. Changing Environment of Agriculture

  • Migration of city dwellers to agricultural areas.

    • Why?

      • Escape problems of city life

      • Attracted to recreational developments

Changing environment of agriculture cont

Changing Environment of Agriculture, cont

  • Attitudes

    • Find odors offensive

    • Unaware of byproducts of livestock production

3 livestock waste disposal concerns

3. Livestock Waste Disposal Concerns

  • Communities share the cost of waste disposal in cities

    • Cost of facility – several million dollars

    • Cost to individual in city - $100 to $200

Livestock waste disposal concerns cont

Livestock Waste Disposal Concerns, cont

  • Individuals responsible for cost for livestock enterprises

    • 200,000 hens, 1,200 head of cattle in a feedlot, 10,500 hogs may produce as much waste as 20,000 people.

C agricultural disposal systems

C. Agricultural Disposal Systems

  • Must be part of the total management plan

  • Must be affordable

  • Must meet the expectations of the non farming people who live nearby

  • Must meet environmental regulations

D federal regulations

D. Federal Regulations

  • Federal Water Quality Act of 1965

  • Refuse Act of 1899

  • Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965

  • Federal Clean Air Act

E state regulations

E. State Regulations

  • Most states have some type of environmental protection agency

  • Enforce State & Federal regulations

  • Nuisance Laws

    • May include odors, dust, chemicals, water pollution, animal noises, carcass disposal, etc

F water pollutants

F. Water Pollutants

  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

  • EPA monitors

    • Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

    • Fecal Coliform

    • Fecal Streptococcus

    • Suspended Solids

    • Phosphorus

    • Ammonia

G handling livestock wastes

G. Handling Livestock Wastes

  • Objective is to control

  • Prevent surface & groundwater pollution

  • other Nuisances

  • Odors

  • Dust

  • Flies

  • Rodents

Handling livestock wastes cont

Handling Livestock Wastes, cont.

  • Amount of Manure Produced

    • Species

    • Age of Animal

    • Ration Fed

Handling livestock wastes cont1

Handling Livestock Wastes, cont.

  • Fertilizer Usage– Nutrient Content Factors

    • Length of time in storage

    • Method of treatment

    • Amount and type of bedding used

    • Amount of dilution by water entering the system

F manure handling systems

F. Manure Handling Systems

  • Factors to consider

    • EPA Regulations

    • Kind of Animal Being Raised

    • Kind of Housing and Management

    • Size and Type of Operation

    • Climate

    • Characteristics of Operation

Manure handling systems cont

Manure Handling Systems, cont.

  • Classification of Facilities

    • Confined

      • Open Lot

      • Lot and Shelter

      • Enclosed Shelter

    • Unconfined

      • Pasture

      • Range

Manure handling systems cont1

Manure Handling Systems, cont.

  • Types of Systems

    • Liquid

      • Pits

      • Lagoon

      • Storage Basins

    • Solid

G determining the amount of livestock waste to apply on the land

G. Determining the Amount of Livestock Waste to Apply on the Land

Determining the amount of livestock waste to apply on the land

Determining the Amount of Livestock Waste to Apply on the Land

  • Agronomic Nitrogen Rate

    • Available Nitrogen per unit of yield necessary to produce a given crop

    • Varies with species

    • Varies with ration fed

    • Varies with method of collection and storage

  • Phosphorus Requirements

H disposing of manure

H. Disposing of Manure

  • Spread on land

    • All solid systems

    • All liquid systems except lagoons

  • Valuable as fertilizers

Disposing of manure cont

Disposing of Manure, cont.

  • Environmental Considerations

    • Must be incorporated or injected in the soils

    • Do not apply to frozen or snow cover land

    • Do not apply immediately before or after a rainstorm to to saturated land

Disposing of manure cont1

. Disposing of Manure, cont.

  • Do not apply to grass waterways

  • Do not apply within 200 feet of surface waters or within 150 feet of a well

  • Reduce the amount applied if there is a high water table present or if soil is highly permeable

I preventing feedlot runoff

I. Preventing Feedlot Runoff

  • Diversion – prevent surface water from entering

  • Drainage – channel runoff from feedlot

Preventing feedlot runoff cont

Preventing Feedlot Runoff, cont

  • Debris basins – catch run off from pens

  • Holding ponds – temporary storage for runoff

  • Disposal – collect and use for irrigation or allow to evaporate

J gases and odors from livestock wastes

J. Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes

  • Caused by anaerobic bacteria breaking down the organic components

    • Occurs when no Oxygen is present

Gases and odors from livestock wastes cont

Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes, cont

  • Gases dangerous to people and livestock in poorly ventilated or confinement areas

  • Odors may cause neighbors to take legal action against the farmer

Gases and odors from livestock wastes cont1

Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes, cont

  • Control Methods

    • Reduced by mixing air with manure

    • Mix manure in soil as soon as possible after hauling/spreading

Gases and odors from livestock wastes cont2

Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes, cont

  • Chemical and Bacterial culture

    • Masking agents

      • Cover up odors

    • Counteractants

      • Attempt to neutralize odors

Gases and odors from livestock wastes cont3

Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes, cont

Chemical and Bacterial culture, cont

  • Deodorants

    • Chemicals that kill the bacteria that cause odor

  • Digestive deodorants

    • Create a digestive process to eliminate odor

K disposal of dead animals

K. Disposal of Dead Animals

  • Responsibility of owner

  • Many states require within 24 to 48 hrs

  • Done so as not to cause health hazard

    • Diseases may spread to other animals/humans

    • Treat any dead animal as though diseased

    • Eliminate environmental threats

Disposal of dead animals cont

Disposal of Dead Animals, cont

  • Transport in a covered, metal, leak proof vehicle

  • Approved Methods

    • Licensed disposal plant

    • Burying

    • Disposal pits

    • Burning

    • Composting

F livestock laws

F. Livestock Laws

  • Animal Trespass

    • Owner Liability

      • Damage to property

    • Estray

      • Domestic Animal of Unknown ownership running at large

    • Land owner may retain possession until compensated (varies by states)

Livestock laws cont

Livestock Laws, cont

  • Animals On Highways

    • May cause traffic accidents

    • Owner Liability

      • Usually negligence must be proven

Revised 2 1 2001

Revised 2/1/2001

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