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Livestock and the Environment. Johanna Davis. Agricultural Concerns. Federal & State Environmental Laws Endangered Species Act. B. Environmental Problems of Livestock Production. 1. Changes in Livestock Production. Trend toward larger livestock operations

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Presentation Transcript
agricultural concerns
Agricultural Concerns
  • Federal & State Environmental Laws
  • Endangered Species Act
1 changes in livestock production
1. Changes in Livestock Production
  • Trend toward larger livestock operations
  • Use of large livestock confinement systems such as feedlots
2 changing environment of agriculture
2. Changing Environment of Agriculture
  • Migration of city dwellers to agricultural areas.
    • Why?
      • Escape problems of city life
      • Attracted to recreational developments
changing environment of agriculture cont
Changing Environment of Agriculture, cont
  • Attitudes
    • Find odors offensive
    • Unaware of byproducts of livestock production
3 livestock waste disposal concerns
3. Livestock Waste Disposal Concerns
  • Communities share the cost of waste disposal in cities
    • Cost of facility – several million dollars
    • Cost to individual in city - $100 to $200
livestock waste disposal concerns cont
Livestock Waste Disposal Concerns, cont
  • Individuals responsible for cost for livestock enterprises
    • 200,000 hens, 1,200 head of cattle in a feedlot, 10,500 hogs may produce as much waste as 20,000 people.
c agricultural disposal systems
C. Agricultural Disposal Systems
  • Must be part of the total management plan
  • Must be affordable
  • Must meet the expectations of the non farming people who live nearby
  • Must meet environmental regulations
d federal regulations
D. Federal Regulations
  • Federal Water Quality Act of 1965
  • Refuse Act of 1899
  • Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965
  • Federal Clean Air Act
e state regulations
E. State Regulations
  • Most states have some type of environmental protection agency
  • Enforce State & Federal regulations
  • Nuisance Laws
    • May include odors, dust, chemicals, water pollution, animal noises, carcass disposal, etc
f water pollutants
F. Water Pollutants
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • EPA monitors
    • Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
    • Fecal Coliform
    • Fecal Streptococcus
    • Suspended Solids
    • Phosphorus
    • Ammonia
g handling livestock wastes
G. Handling Livestock Wastes
  • Objective is to control
  • Prevent surface & groundwater pollution
  • other Nuisances
  • Odors
  • Dust
  • Flies
  • Rodents
handling livestock wastes cont
Handling Livestock Wastes, cont.
  • Amount of Manure Produced
    • Species
    • Age of Animal
    • Ration Fed
handling livestock wastes cont1
Handling Livestock Wastes, cont.
  • Fertilizer Usage– Nutrient Content Factors
    • Length of time in storage
    • Method of treatment
    • Amount and type of bedding used
    • Amount of dilution by water entering the system
f manure handling systems
F. Manure Handling Systems
  • Factors to consider
    • EPA Regulations
    • Kind of Animal Being Raised
    • Kind of Housing and Management
    • Size and Type of Operation
    • Climate
    • Characteristics of Operation
manure handling systems cont
Manure Handling Systems, cont.
  • Classification of Facilities
    • Confined
      • Open Lot
      • Lot and Shelter
      • Enclosed Shelter
    • Unconfined
      • Pasture
      • Range
manure handling systems cont1
Manure Handling Systems, cont.
  • Types of Systems
    • Liquid
      • Pits
      • Lagoon
      • Storage Basins
    • Solid
determining the amount of livestock waste to apply on the land
Determining the Amount of Livestock Waste to Apply on the Land
  • Agronomic Nitrogen Rate
    • Available Nitrogen per unit of yield necessary to produce a given crop
    • Varies with species
    • Varies with ration fed
    • Varies with method of collection and storage
  • Phosphorus Requirements
h disposing of manure
H. Disposing of Manure
  • Spread on land
    • All solid systems
    • All liquid systems except lagoons
  • Valuable as fertilizers
disposing of manure cont
Disposing of Manure, cont.
  • Environmental Considerations
    • Must be incorporated or injected in the soils
    • Do not apply to frozen or snow cover land
    • Do not apply immediately before or after a rainstorm to to saturated land
disposing of manure cont1
. Disposing of Manure, cont.
  • Do not apply to grass waterways
  • Do not apply within 200 feet of surface waters or within 150 feet of a well
  • Reduce the amount applied if there is a high water table present or if soil is highly permeable
i preventing feedlot runoff
I. Preventing Feedlot Runoff
  • Diversion – prevent surface water from entering
  • Drainage – channel runoff from feedlot
preventing feedlot runoff cont
Preventing Feedlot Runoff, cont
  • Debris basins – catch run off from pens
  • Holding ponds – temporary storage for runoff
  • Disposal – collect and use for irrigation or allow to evaporate
j gases and odors from livestock wastes
J. Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes
  • Caused by anaerobic bacteria breaking down the organic components
    • Occurs when no Oxygen is present
gases and odors from livestock wastes cont
Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes, cont
  • Gases dangerous to people and livestock in poorly ventilated or confinement areas
  • Odors may cause neighbors to take legal action against the farmer
gases and odors from livestock wastes cont1
Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes, cont
  • Control Methods
    • Reduced by mixing air with manure
    • Mix manure in soil as soon as possible after hauling/spreading
gases and odors from livestock wastes cont2
Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes, cont
  • Chemical and Bacterial culture
    • Masking agents
      • Cover up odors
    • Counteractants
      • Attempt to neutralize odors
gases and odors from livestock wastes cont3
Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes, cont

Chemical and Bacterial culture, cont

  • Deodorants
    • Chemicals that kill the bacteria that cause odor
  • Digestive deodorants
    • Create a digestive process to eliminate odor
k disposal of dead animals
K. Disposal of Dead Animals
  • Responsibility of owner
  • Many states require within 24 to 48 hrs
  • Done so as not to cause health hazard
    • Diseases may spread to other animals/humans
    • Treat any dead animal as though diseased
    • Eliminate environmental threats
disposal of dead animals cont
Disposal of Dead Animals, cont
  • Transport in a covered, metal, leak proof vehicle
  • Approved Methods
    • Licensed disposal plant
    • Burying
    • Disposal pits
    • Burning
    • Composting
f livestock laws
F. Livestock Laws
  • Animal Trespass
    • Owner Liability
      • Damage to property
    • Estray
      • Domestic Animal of Unknown ownership running at large
    • Land owner may retain possession until compensated (varies by states)
livestock laws cont
Livestock Laws, cont
  • Animals On Highways
    • May cause traffic accidents
    • Owner Liability
      • Usually negligence must be proven