REPORTED SPEECH. 2nd of Bachillerato. DEFINITION /CHARACTERISTICS. WE CAN NARRATE WHAT OTHER PERSON SAID IN TWO WAYS: - REPEATING HIS / HER EXACT WORDS DIRECT SPEECH ‘I have to go now’, she said. ‘We lived n Paris for three years’ , Peter said.
2nd of Bachillerato
WE CAN NARRATE WHAT OTHER PERSON SAID IN TWO WAYS:
-REPEATING HIS / HER EXACT WORDS DIRECT SPEECH
‘I have to go now’, she said.
‘We lived n Paris for three years’ , Peter said.
-USING OTHER WORDS TO SAY IT REPORTED SPEECH
She said (that) she had to go then.
Paul said (that) they had lived in Paris.
IN REPORTED SPEECH:
- THEY DO NOT APPEAR BETWEEN INVERTED COMMAS.
- THE SENTENCE IS INTRODUCED MAINLY BY SAY / TELL / ASK.
- NARRATION TIME STEPS BACK IF THE INTRODUCTORY VERB IS IN PAST.
- TIME AND PLACE EXPRESSIONS, PERSONAL PRONOUNS, POSSESSIVES, DEMONSTRATIVES, ETC. MUST BE LOGICALLY CHANGED.
THERE ARE OTHER INTRODUCTORY VERBS, DEPENDING ON THE
COMMUNICATIVE INTENTION OF THE SENTENCE:
- STATEMENTS:CLAIM, ANSWER, ADMIT, AGREE, BOAST, APOLOGISE, REPLAY, COMPLAIN, DECLARE, DENY, INFORM, EXPLAIN, INSIST, OFFER, MENTION, PROMISE, REFUSE, REMIND, REMARK, THINK, POINT OUT, ANNOUNCE, ETC.
- QUESIONS: ENQUIRE, REQUEST, WANT TO KNOW, WONDER, ETC.
- ORDERS: ORDER, SHOUT, DEMAND, WARN, ETC.
- DEMANDS: BEG, ASK FOR
- SUGGESTIONS: ADVISE, SUGGEST, RECOMMEND, INVITE, OFFER, ETC.
A- NARRATION TIME STEPS BACK IF THE INTRODUCTORY VERB IS IN PAST.
‘He is working in the office now’, they told me.
They told me (that) he was working in the office then.
‘I have read the note’, she said.
She said (that) she had read the note.
B- IF THE VERBS HAS GOT MORE THAN ONE AUXILIAR, ONLY THE FIRST
‘My house is being redecorated’, she said.
She said (that) her house was being redecorated.
C- THOSE CHANGES DO NOT HAPPEN WHEN:
C1- THE INTRODUCTORY VERB IS IN PRESENT OR FUTURE.
‘I love soup’, says Mary / Mary says (that) she loves soup.
C2- WHEN WE NARRATE AN OBJECTIVE TRUTH OR A PERMANENT SITUATION
‘Peter lives in Market Street’, I told them.
I told them (that) Peter lives in Market Street.
DIRECT SPEECH: He said, REPORTED SPEECH: He said that
Present Simple ‘She studies English’. Past Simple …she studied English.
Present Continuous Past Continuous
‘She is studying English’. …she was studying English.
Present Perfect Simple Past Perfect Simple
‘She has studied English’. …she had studied English.
Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
‘She has been studying English’. …she had been studying English.
Past Simple Past Perfect Simple
‘She studied English’. …she had studied English.
Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
‘She was studying English’. …she had been studying English.
Past Perfect Simple ‘She had studied English’. NO CHANGE
Past Perfect Continuous ‘She had been studying English’. NO CHANGE
Future Simple ‘She will study English’. Conditional …she would study English.
Future Continuous Future Past Continuous
‘She will be studying English’. …she would be studying English.
CAN ‘She can study English’. COULD …she could study English.
MAY ‘She may study English’. MIGHT …she might study English.
MUST / HAVE TO MUST / HAD TO
‘She must / has to study English.’ …she must / had to study English.
A- PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES OR PRONOUNS OF 1st OR 2nd PERSON CHANGE, DEPENDING ON WHO SPEAKS. THOSE OF 3rd PERSON DO NOT CHANGE.
DIRECT SPEECH: THIS / THESEREPORTED SPEECH: THAT / THOSE
C- TIME & PLACE EXPRESSIONS
DIRECT SPEECH: REPORTED SPEECH:
today / tonight that day / that night
yesterday the day before / the previous day
tomorrow the next / following day / the day after
next week / month the following week / month
last week / month the previous week / month
the week / month before
a week / month ago the week / month before
YES / NO QUESTIONS
-WE USE THE STRUCTURE: ASK (REQUEST, DEMAND, ETC.) + IF / WHETHER
- THE QUESTIONS BECOMES A STATEMENT (INVERSION SUBJECT-VERB DISAPPEARS).
- THE AND THE QUESTION MARK DISAPPEAR, TOO.
‘Did you speak to John last night?’, she asked.
She asked if / whether I had spoken to John the night before.
‘Are you working these days?’, he enquired.
He enquired if / whether I was working those days.
- WE USE THE STRUCTURE: ASK (REQUEST, DEMAND, ETC.) + WH-PRONOUN
- THE QUESTIONS BECOMES A STATEMENT (INVERSION SUBJECT-VERB DISAPPEARS).
- THE INVERTED COMMAS AND THE QUESTION MARK DISAPPEAR, TOO.
‘Where are Niagara Falls?, the child asked.
The child asked where the Niagara Falls were.
‘Who was singing last morning?, my mum asked.
My mum asked who had been singing the previous morning.
ORDERS ARE USUALLY EXPRESSED WITH AN IMPERATIVE IN DIRECT SPEECH,
BUT THEY SUFFER THE FOLLOWING CHANGES IN REPORTED SPEECH:
A- IMPERATIVE CHANGES TO INFINITIVE, KEEPING AFFIRMATIVE OR NEGATIVE
He said, ‘Stay here’. He told us to stay there.
She shouted, ‘Don’t move’. She shouted us not to move.
B- WE USE VERBS SUCH AS ORDER, TELL OR INSTRUCT.
He said, ‘Please don’t shout’. He ordered me not to shout.
C- WE USE VERBS SUCH AS WARN, ASK, BEG OR INVITE TO MAKE DEMANDS,
INVITATIONS OR TO GIVE ADVISE.
‘Say that again, please’, he said. He asked me to say that again.
WE USE THE VERBS SUGGEST OR RECOMMEND TO INTRODUCE A SUGGESTION
IN REPORTED SPEECH. THEN, WE TELL WHAT THE OTHER PERSON SAID IN TWO
A- WITH A GERUND, WHEN WE INDICATE THAT THE PERSON WHO DID THE
SUGGESTION INCLUDED HIMSELF / HERSELF IN IT.
‘Why don’t we have lunch at Starvos’?, Laura said.
Laura suggested having lunch at Starvos’.
B- WITH A THAT + SUBJECT + VERB SENTENCE IN ITS BASIC FORM, WHEN WE
INDICATE THAT THE PERSON WHO DID THE SUGGESTION REFERRED TO OTHER
‘Alice should stop smoking’, Peter said.
Peter recommended that Alice stop smoking.
CHANGE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES TO REPORTED SPEECH.
‘My cousins have often visited France’, Joanna pointed out.
Joanna pointed out that her cousins had often visisted France.
‘A lot of gold is mined in Soth Africa’, the diplomat said.
The diplomat said (that) a lot of gold was / is mined in South Africa.
‘The minister is preparing his speech’, the journalist remarked.
The journalist remarked that the minister was preparing his speech.
‘Keep quiet!’, the nurse said to the visitors.
The nurse told the visitors to keep quiet.
‘Are you going to the club now?’, he wanted to know.
He wanted to know if / whether I was going to the club then.
‘Who assassinated Abraham Lincoln?’, the teacher asked the student.
The teacher asked the student who had assassinated Abraham Lincoln.
‘How far is the station from our hotel?’, the girl asked.
The girl asked how far the station was from their hotel.
‘Will the workers be at work next Saturday?’, the manager asked.
The manager asked if / whether the workers would be at work the following Saturday.
‘Let’s play a football match!’, Peter suggested.
Peter suggested playing a football match.
‘What have you made for dinner?’, Carol asked him.
Carol asked him what he had maed for dinner.
‘Eric was studying all day Thursday’, Jim admitted.
Jim admitted that Eric had been stidying all day Thursday.
‘Please come over for supper next Friday’, my friend asked.
My friend asked / invited me / us to come over for supper the following Friday.
‘Robert had better not do any sport’, the doctor recommended.
The doctor recommended Robert not do any sport.
‘Please don’t leave’, he begged her.
He begged her not to leave.
‘I will be 17 years old next week’, Brenda reminded me.
Brenda reminded me that she would be 17 years old the following week.