Lianna , G ianna , K eegan, D evon , Lisa. Chapter 6/9: Program Design, Cardiorespiratory Fitness. Cardiorespiratory fitness refers to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity.
Lianna, Gianna, Keegan, Devon , Lisa
Cardiorespiratory fitness refers to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity.What is Cardiorespiratory Fitness?
Increased ability to extract O2 in working muscles
Lower lactate levels in blood
Increased amounts of myoglobin to carry O2 in muscles
Increased number, size of mitochondria in muscle cells to carry out aerobic metabolism
Increased stores of glycogen (needed for energy)
Increased utilisation of stored fats, resulting in better body composition, and reduced risk of obesity
Increased activity of aerobic enzymes
Increased muscular endurance
Using the heart (by the left or right ventricle in the time interval of 1 minFick Principle, cardiac output can be calculated from these measurements:
From these values, we know that:
VO2 = (Q×CA) - (Q×CV)
CA = Oxygen content of arterial blood
CV = Oxygen content of venous blood
This allows us to say:
Q = (VO2/(CA – CV))*100
SV = EDV − ESV
So, in a healthy 70-kg man, EDV is approx. 120mL and ESV is approx. 50mL,
what is his stroke volume?
Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels.
During each heartbeat, blood pressure varies between a maximum (systolic) and a minimum (diastolic) pressure.
The average blood pressure, due to pumping by the heart and resistance to flow in blood vessels, decreases as the circulating blood moves away from the heart through arteries.Blood Pressure
H upon the walls of blood vessels.eart rate is the number of heartbeats per minute (bpm)
It can be measured by finding the pulse of the body
Tachycardia-a resting heart rate of more than 100 bpm
Bradycardia-a heart rate of less than 60 bpm
Arrhythmia-abnormalities of the heart rate and rhythm
Fact: Miguel Indurain, a Spanish cyclist and five time Tour de France winner, had a resting heart rate of 29 beats per minute, one of the lowest ever recorded in a healthy human. Again, this number can vary as children and small adults tend to have faster heart rates than average adults.Heart Rate
P upon the walls of blood vessels.erformed by moderately forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway, usually done by closing one's mouth and pinching one's nose shut.
Variations of the manoeuvre can be used either in medical examinations as a test of cardiac function and autonomic nervous control of the heart, or to "clear" the ears and sinuses (equalize pressure between them) when ambient pressure changes, as in diving, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, or aviationThe Valsalva Manoeuvre
The best training zone for aerobic exercise for those trying to burn fat and build muscle tone is at a rate of 65 to 70 percent of maximum heart rate.
If you are training to hard with your aerobic exercise, you will soon step into the overtraining range and start to become too lean, losing muscle tissue, looking to skinny and emaciated.
If you push yourself to far your recuperation system starts to bog down and you won’t get the muscle tone that you want.
· Beginners: 60 to 65%
· Intermediates: 65 to 70%
· Advanced: 70 to 80%
Using a heart rate monitor watch is great way to
determine your heart rate and to know your safe
zone when exercising.Target Heart Rate Zone
A simple way to make sure you're working within your target heart rate zone, which is the most effective zone for improving your fitness and burning calories
Useful to be used during a workout to help monitor to track your heart rate
Your range that you should be exercising in. For Example: A 55-year-old would have the following calculation for Max Heart Rate:220 - 55 years = 165 beats per minute, or bpmTo calculate their target heart rate zone (65-85%):Max heart rate x target % = Target Heart Rate165 x 65% (or .65) = 107 bpm165 x 85% (or .85) = 140 bpmThis person's target heart rate zone is 107 bpm to 140 bpm. http://exercise.about.com/cs/fitnesstools/l/bl_THR.htmTarget Heart Rate Calculator
Mathematical formula that helps you determine your target heart rate zone.
Target Heart Rate = ((max HR ? resting HR) × %Intensity) + resting HR
Beneficial to staying within this range will help you workout be more effective during your cardio workout and to know your limit
Finding a more accurate target heart rate while exercising, you will need to determine your resting heart rate
Best time to check your resting heart rate is just before you get up in the morning after a good night's sleep. To make a greater accuracy take the average of two or three morning readings
Cardio needs to be trained 3-5x weekly, at 60-90% of max heart rate. 15-60 min sessions.
F-3-5x a weekI-60-90%T-15-60 minsT- aerobic or anaerobic
Permit body to adapt gradually & to avoid & personal discouragement
2-6 weeks depending on fitness level
Low intensity up to70-80% of Hrmax
Increase duration & intensity only when comfortable
Be aware of aches & painsStarter phase
70-90% Hrmax (50-85 VO2max)
Stay in tune with your body
16-28 weeks discouragement
When gained specific training goalmaintainable by reduced frequency of training
Intensity and duration maintained
Periods of lower training volume can be used to prevent overtraining or to let athletes focus on competitive events while maintaining physical condition
Reducible by 2 training days/weekmaintenance
Despite benefits, tapering is the most overlooked phase of marathon preparation.
Definition: cutting back training, so your body can rebuild to peak strength.
allows muscles to repair the micro-damage of intervals, energy systems to store up glycogen, body to overcome the chronic dehydration of hard training, and tendonitis in your knee or ankle or hip to finally go away.Tapering phase
Most training benefits lost within 4 – 8 week period of sedentary activity
Different components of fitness de-training at different rates
Ex. Strength gains last much longer than adaptions in cardiorespiratory fitness/ flexibility
Longer consistently training = longer results will remainDe-training
http://pfitzinger.com/labreports/marathontaper.shtml sedentary activitybibliography