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Elements of an Argument. Rhetorical Triangle. pathos. ethos. audience. speaker. message. logos. The Appeals. pathos – emotional appeal; stirs strong feelings within the audience logos – logical appeal; constructs a message of a well-reasoned argument

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Rhetorical Triangle

pathos

ethos

audience

speaker

message

logos


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The Appeals

  • pathos – emotional appeal; stirs strong feelings within the audience

  • logos – logical appeal; constructs a message of a well-reasoned argument

  • ethos – ethical appeal; establishes credibility and authority of speaker


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How do I identify pathos?

  • Connotative diction

  • Diction

  • Imagery

  • Figurative language (metaphor, personification, hyperbole, etc. )

  • Carefully-crafted syntax (sentence structure)

  • Personal anecdotes (experiences or stories)


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How do I identify logos?

  • Facts

  • Statistics

  • Research

  • Referring to experts

  • Cause & effect


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How do I identify ethos?

  • Stating qualifications for expertise

  • Using first person plural pronouns (“we”)

  • Citing relevant authorities

  • Citing relevant allusions



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  • Call to action – the action the speaker or writer is persuading the audience or reader to take

  • Claim – debatable controversial statement the speaker or writer intends to prove with evidence

  • Commentary – connecting the evidence to the claim (How does evidence support claim?)

  • Concession – respectful acknowledgement of opposing viewpoint


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  • Hook – the beginning of a persuasive essay meant to capture the reader’s attention (quote, profound statement, imagery, etc.)

  • Evidence – support for writer’s claim (examples, anecdotes, facts, statistics, research, etc.)

  • Thesis – a sentence that expresses the writer’s position on a certain topic

  • Qualifier – puts limits on a claim (usually, sometimes, in most cases, etc.)


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Constructing an Argument capture the reader’s attention (quote, profound statement, imagery, etc.)


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1. Introduction capture the reader’s attention (quote, profound statement, imagery, etc.)

a. Hook

b. Thesis

2. Body Paragraph 1

a. Claim

b. Evidence

c. Commentary

  • Body Paragraph 2

    a. Claim

    b. Evidence

    c. Commentary

    4. Body Paragraph 3

    a. Claim

    b. Evidence

    c. Commentary

    5. Conclusion

    a. Refutation – (slight CONCESSION)

    b. Make it memorable (CALL TO ACTION)


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Terms of Concessions capture the reader’s attention (quote, profound statement, imagery, etc.)

  • I concede that…; however, …

  • Yes, but…

  • I recognize that …, but I must point out that…

  • While I agree that…, we must remember that…

  • Although I understand that…, I still believe that…


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