Chapter 10
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Chapter 10. ACIDS and BASES. PROPERTIES OF ACIDS. All acids contain the element hydrogen in a combined form. HC 2 H 3 O 2 acetic acid (vinegar) HClhydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4 sulphuric acid All acids have a sour taste. Acids are corrosive (eat away or destroy a substance.).

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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

ACIDS and BASES


Properties of acids

PROPERTIES OF ACIDS

  • All acids contain the element hydrogenin a combined form.

    • HC2H3O2 acetic acid (vinegar)

    • HClhydrochloric acid

    • H2SO4sulphuric acid

  • All acids have a sour taste.

  • Acids are corrosive (eat away or destroy a substance.)


  • Properties of acids1

    PROPERTIES OF ACIDS

    • Acids react with metals to produce hydrogen gas and a salt.

      Zn + 2 HCl  ZnCl2 + H2

    • Acids react with carbonates (CO32-) or bicarbonates (HCO31-) to produce carbon dioxide, water and a salt.

      2HCl + CaCO3 CO2 + H2O + CaCl2


    Properties of acids2

    PROPERTIES OF ACIDS

    • Acids are good electrolytes.

    • Acids are produced by reacting non-metallic oxides with water. These non-metallic oxides are called acid anhydrides.

      SO3 + H2O  H2SO4


    Properties of acids3

    PROPERTIES OF ACIDS

    • Acids change the colour of indicators.

      • Red litmus paper remains red

      • Blue litmus paper turns red

      • Phenolphthalein remains colourless

      • Bromthymol blue turns yellow

      • Methyl orange turns red


    Properties of bases

    PROPERTIES OF BASES

    • Most bases contain the hydroxide ion (OH-).

      • NaOHsodium hydroxide

      • Ca(OH)2calcium hydroxide

      • NH4OHammonium hydroxide

    • Some bases contain the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-).

      • NaHCO3sodium bicarbonate

      • KHCO3potassium bicarbonate


    Properties of bases1

    PROPERTIES OF BASES

    • All bases have a bitter taste and feel slippery, slimy or soapy

    • Bases are good electrolytes.

    • Bases are caustic (eat away flesh)


    Properties of bases2

    PROPERTIES OF BASES

    • Bases are prepared by:

      • an active metal reacting with water.

        Ca + H2O  Ca(OH)2 + H2

      • A metallic oxide reacting with water. These metallic oxides are called basic anhydrides.

        Na2O + H2O  2NaOH


    Properties of bases3

    PROPERTIES OF BASES

    • Bases change the colour of indicators.

      • Red litmus paper turns blue

      • Blue litmus paper remains blue

      • Phenolphthalein turns pink

      • Bromthymol blue remains blue

      • Methyl orange remains orange


    Definitions of acids and bases

    Definitions of Acids and Bases

    • Arrhenius Theory

      • An acid ionizes in water to increase the hydrogen ion concentration.

      • A base dissociates in water to increase the hydroxide ion concentration.

      • A neutralization reaction involves the reaction of a hydrogen ion with a hydroxide ion to produce water.


    Time to get to work

    Time to Get To Work

    • Learning Check pg 457

    • # 1- 4, 6


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