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Chapter 5 EXCEPTIONALITY. James Bell Lisa Marvel November 15, 2010. Despite Federal mandates, equality still eludes millions of individuals with disabilities in this country. Gollnick & Chinn (2009). Society’s Standard. Race Gender Religion Marital Status Sexual Orientation

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chapter 5 exceptionality


James Bell

Lisa Marvel

November 15, 2010


Despite Federal mandates, equality still eludes millions of individuals with disabilities in this country.

Gollnick & Chinn (2009)

society s standard
Society’s Standard
  • Race
  • Gender
  • Religion
  • Marital Status
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Cognitive Ability (intelligence)
  • Special Needs or Not
  • The 6-hour retarded child” – Given to children while at school; the remaining 18 hours of the day they are not considered retarded by those with whom they interact.
  • Mental retardation and Emotional disturbance – linked to lower socioeconomic status and individuals of color

- Both are among the lowest socially acceptable disabilities and perhaps the most stigmatizing.

  • The labeling process continues, sometimes into adulthood.


What are some of the objections to labeling children with disabilities?

  • Brown v. Board of Education did not involve children with disabilities, but as the precedent was set to guarantee equal educational opportunity for ethnic minority children, it too, set a precedent in the argument of guaranteeing the rights of student with disabilities. (p. 166)
  • One of the arguments to deny admission to children with moderate and severe mental retardation was that they could not learn to read, write, and do arithmetic in the same manner that nondisabled students learned (p. 166)
  • Parents and supporters of these children countered by arguing that learning self-help skills and other important life skills was indeed learning, and this was education (p. 167)
  • These children and others could learn…if support services were provided (p. 167)
parc v the commonwealth of pennsylvania p 167
PARC v. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (p. 167)
  • Education cannot be defined as only the provision of academic experiences for children
  • All students with mental retardation were capable of benefiting from programs of education and training
  • Having undertaken a free public education for the children of Pennsylvania, the state could not deny children with mental retardation the same opportunities
  • The earlier the students with mental retardation were provided education, the greater the amount of learning could be predicted
mills v board of education
Mills v. Board of Education
  • The court ordered the District of Columbia to provide due process procedural safeguards (p. 167)
  • There must be clearly outlined due process procedures for labeling, placement, and exclusion (p. 167)
  • Procedural safeguards must include the right to appeal, right to access records, and written notice of all stages of the process (p. 167)
reflection question

Reflection Question

What provision(s) do you provide for Students With Disabilities in your school or workplace?

  • Section 504 and Public Law 93-112
  • Public Law 94-142
  • American with Disabilities Act
  • Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)
exceptional individuals and society
  • “Society has begun to accept its basic responsibilities for people with disabilities but social equality has yet to become a reality” (p. 174).
  • Contemporary American society places great emphasis on physical beauty and attractiveness (p. 175).
exceptional individuals and society1
  • Attitudes of society parallel that of racism (p. 175).
  • Disabilities often dominate society’s perception of a person’s social value and creates a mind-set of deviance (p. 176).
  • “Handicapism leads to stereotyping of, and discrimination against, individuals with disabilities because of attitudes of superiority held by some nondisabled individuals” (p. 176).
disproportionate placement in special education
  • The overrepresentation of students of color in special education has been one of the most problematic issues facing educators in recent years. (p. 180)
  • Some special education classes…had become a dumping ground for many culturally and linguistically diverse children (p. 180)
  • While overrepresentation in special education does not necessarily translate into inappropriate placement, it is indicative of either problems within the educational system, or society in general. (p. 181)
Why are minority students overrepresented in special education?
contributing variables to overrepresentation
Contributing Variables to Overrepresentation
  • Poverty (p. 182)
  • Lead Poisoning (p. 183)
  • Over-referrals (p. 183)
  • Racial Bias (p. 184)
  • Assessment Issues (p.184)
  • Unexplained Issues (p. 184)
classroom focus
  • Children with disabilities
    • have the same basic needs as all children.
    • need straight, honest communication tempered with sensitivity.
    • are more like than unlike nondisabled children.
    • need acceptance and understanding.
classroom focus1
  • Normalization

“making available to all persons with disabilities or other handicaps, patterns of life and conditions of everyday living which are as close as possible to or indeed the same as the regular circumstances and ways of life of society” (Nirje, 1985, p. 67).