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Impact of Climatic Factors & Adaptation Measures On Productivity of Tea Plantations In Sri Lanka

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Impact of Climatic Factors & Adaptation Measures On Productivity of Tea Plantations In Sri Lanka. M.A.Wijeratne Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka. Impact of the Tea Industry. Employment. Foreign exchange. Farmer’s Income. Environment. Tea Growing Regions in Sri Lanka. Major….

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Impact of Climatic Factors &

Adaptation Measures

On Productivity of Tea Plantations

In Sri Lanka

M.A.Wijeratne

Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka

slide2

Impact of the Tea Industry

Employment

Foreign exchange

Farmer’s Income

Environment

slide3

Tea Growing Regions in Sri Lanka

Major…

U- Up country (>1200m amsl) T:10-27 oC

M- Mid country (600-1200m amsl) T:19-30 oC

L- Low country (<600m amsl) T:21-34 oC C

Agro-Ecological Regions….

Up country wet zone (WU 1-3) RF:1400->3175mm

Up country Intermediate zone (IU 1-3) RF:1150->2150mm

Mid country Wet zone (WM 1-3) RF:1250->3150mm

Mid country Intermediate zone (IM 2) RF:1150->1400mm

Low country Wet zone (WL 1-2) RF:1900->2525mm

slide4

IM

WM

IU

WL

WU

slide6

Smallholder

Up-Wet

Up-Int.

Low-Wet

slide7

Most Influential Environmental Factors…

Present

Rainfall (>1200mm)

Temperature (18-25oC)

Drought damage in tea

Future (with CC)

Rainfall

Temperature

CO2

slide8

Region Most Vulnerable to CC..…

Drop: 26%

Loss: 70 Mn USD

Low Country

56%

Drought

Up Country

26%

18%

Mid Country

1992

slide9

Methodology

Data Collection

  • Estates (RF & Productivity)
  • Met Stations (RF & Temperature)
  • TRI Experiments (CO2 & Adaptations)

Problems encountered

  • Missing data (non-continuity)
  • Reliability
  • Classification (Elevation)
slide10

Methodology

Data Analysis

  • Trends
  • Correlations
  • Extreme events

Productivity

Problems encountered

  • Variability (Variety/Management/growth
  • Missing data

Time

slide12

Productivity in different regions & Drought Effects

POTEN.

26%

28%

19%

14%

1991

25%

WU

IU

1992

WM

IM

WL

slide13

Productivity vs Environmental factors

PRELIMINARY RESULTS

Rainfall (mm)-Dry month & Monthly yield (kg/ha)

Up country wet zone (WU 1-3) RF:1400->3175mm

YIELD=116+0.23 RF: r2 = 0.15 (p<0.05)

Up country Intermediate zone (IU 1-3) RF:1150->2150mm

YIELD=76.7+0.32 RF: r2 =0.21 (p<0.05)

Mid country Wet zone (WM 1-3) RF:1250->3150mm

YIELD=78.7 + 0.75 RF: r2 =0.77 p<0.05)

Low country Wet zone (WL 1-2) RF:1900->2525mm

YIELD=62.9 + 0.25 RF: r2 =0.66 (p<0.05)

slide14

Productivity vs Environmental factors

Temperature & Monthly yield (kg/ha)

Up country wet zone (WU 1-3) RF:1400->3175mm

Y= -219+24.5 T: r2 = 0.12 (p<0.05)

Up country Intermediate zone (IU 1-3) RF:1150->2150mm

Y= -310+25 T: r2 =0.13 (p<0.05)

ENTIRE REGIONS

Y= -508+63.7 T – 1.46 T2 (p<0.05)

slide15

Productivity vs Environmental factors

CO2 vs Mean yield (kg/ha/wk)

Yield

45%

18%

600ppm

Enriched

Control

Month

slide16

Adaptations

Irrigation

Supply of water/nutrients

Yield increase (wet): 50->100%

Yield increase (dry): >300% increase

Limitations

Availability of water resources

slide17

Adaptations

Soil improvements

Enhanced Microbial activity

Increased CEC

Enhanced porosity & WHC

Improved Soil Structure

Addition of compost

Burying of prunings

25% Yield Increase per 1% OC (8-10 tons of OC/ha/ year)

Limitations

Availability of resources: Labour & Material

slide18

Adaptations

Shade management

Control of temp:(2oC) /RH

Addition of GM: (5-20t/ha/yr)

Limitations

Management difficulties

slide19

Adaptations

Intercropping

Provision of shade

Other benefits

Limitations

Poor returns compared to monocropping of tea ??

slide20

Adaptations

Diversification of marginal tea lands

  • Timber/Forest/Grass
  • Source of green manure
  • Preserve environment

Limitations

Social implications ??

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