You need your lab notebook!!
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You need your lab notebook!!. A note on assignments. Late homework is worth 50%. I will not stamp the date on it. BE ORGANIZED!! Keep your notebooks in one place (on your shelf). Keep a separate notebook for each class.

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You need your lab notebook!!

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  • You need your lab notebook!!

A note on assignments

  • Late homework is worth 50%. I will not stamp the date on it.

  • BE ORGANIZED!! Keep your notebooks in one place (on your shelf).

  • Keep a separate notebook for each class.

  • You are in 10th grade. It is YOUR responsibility to complete assignments on time and to not lose your things.


  • Flashcards

  • Self quiz

  • Quiz a friend

  • Teach a friend from memory

  • Draw and label diagrams from memory

  • Rewrite notes

  • Make up practice quiz questions

Retaking a quiz

  • Tuesday 8:10-9:00 pm

  • Thursday 7:00-8:00 pm

  • Call from desk, 2nd floor: 814

  • I will give you the higher mark

  • Separation of a Mixture 16 Oct. 08

  • Objectives: 1.

  • 2.

  • Techniques: 1.

  • 2.

  • Materials

    • (skip 5 lines)

  • Procedure: Observations:

  • Find the mass…

Separation of a mixture


  • To separate a mixture of manganese dioxide and sodium chloride.

  • To determine the percent of each obtained after the separation, and the percent error.


  • manganese dioxide, MnO2, insoluble black powder (manganese (IV) oxide)

  • sodium chloride, NaCl, soluble white crystals


  • Filtration

  • Evaporation

Filter paper



(removes water from a sample)

Stirring rod

Weighing paper

Drying oven (removes water from a sample quickly)


Alcohol burner

Ring stand/ring

Spatula (for moving powdered chemicals from their containers)

Evaporating dish


  • Find the mass of the 100 mL beaker on the electronic balance.

  • Mass 2 grams of NaCl and 1 gram of MnO2 on weighing paper, and record their initial masses. Mix them together in the beaker.

  • Add 20 mL distilled water to the NaCl and MnO2 mixture. Swirl gently to mix, until all the NaCl is dissolved.

    Record a qualitative description.

    How would you separate this mixture (and record the mass of each compound after separation)?


  • Beakers(2, 100 mL), electronic balance (1), distilled water, graduated cylinder (1, 100 mL)

  • NaCl (powder, 2g), MnO2 (powder, 1 g)

Homework 1

  • Draw a cartoon of the SIX main steps required to separate this mixture,

  • and to find out the mass of each compound collected at the end.

  • Write a sentence to describe each of the six steps, under each box of the cartoon.

  • Due: Fri.

  • Goals: Separate the manganese dioxide from the NaCl.

  • Find the mass of each compound after the separation, and compare it to your initial masses.

  • Calculate your percent error.


  • Due Thursday (with your cartoon)

  • On a separate piece of paper:

  • Write the procedure for separating these two compounds (don’t worry about collecting the water)and calculating % obtained/%error.

  • Write a list of materials and equipment required (include how many of each).

A good procedure…

  • Very specific – list every detail even if you think it is obvious!

  • In the correct order

  • Give the name of each piece of equipment you use

  • Write when you will make observations or take a measurement

  • Describe how to do each calculation

  • If you do not turn in this assignment, you will not be allowed to participate in lab.

  • We will edit your procedures before going to lab.

  • Do your best…draw pictures if you have a hard time writing sentences.

  • Come see me for help!

Process of Separation




Residue – manganese dioxide


Reacts with HCl acid, turns moist KI paper blue


Solute – sodium chloride


Reacts with AgNO3 solution to form white precipitate

  • Qualitative Observations:

Common Challenges

Add to your procedure to fix these problems!!

When filtering

  • How will you keep salt water from being absorbed by your filter paper?

  • Wet the filter paper with distilled water from the wash bottle before filtering.

When evaporating

  • How will you know when all the water is evaporated?

  • When the salt looks dry, mass the dish + salt. Heat it a little longer, and mass it again. Repeat, until the difference in mass is less than 0.01 grams.

When finding final mass

  • Scraping the NaCl from the evaporating dish and the MnO2 from the filter paper onto weighing paper will cause you to lose a LOT of mass. How can you avoid this?

  • Mass the filter paper and evaporating dish at the beginning. At the end, mass the filter paper + MnO2 and the evaporating dish + NaCl. Then, just subtract!!


  • The procedure MUST show how to find the final mass of NaCl and MnO2.

  • Also describe how to calculate % obtained (the percent of each at the end), and % error.


  • Write a final draft of your procedure in your lab notebook (in the left column).

  • Under “Materials,” list all the pieces of equipment and compounds, including how many/how much of each.

  • Due Thursday, 30 October, in lab

  • No procedure = no lab

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