States of Matter. I will use the kinetic-molecular theory to explain the physical properties of gases, liquids and solids I will compare types of intermolecular forces I will explain how kinetic energy and intermolecular forces combine to determine the state of a substance
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Compression & Expansion
from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
Rate of diffusion
Depends on mass of particles
Lighter = faster
Heavier = slower
Graham’s Law of Effusion
Also applies to rate of diffusion
Set up a proportion to compare the diffusion rates of 2 gases
Calculate the ratio of effusion rates for nitrogen (N2) and Neon (Ne).
Calculate the ratio of diffusion rates for carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2)
What is the rate of effusion for a gas that has a molar mass twice that of a gas that effuses at a rate of 3.6 mol/min?
Individual particles can only exert little pressure
Many particles colliding can exert substantial pressure
pressure of gases is what keeps our tires inflated, makes our basketballs bounce, makes hairspray come out of the can, etc.
Varies by elevation
Mountains = less
Sea Level = more
Measuring Air Pressure
Air pressure varies because of:
Changes in air temperature
Changes in humidity
Increase in air pressure = Hg rises
Decrease in air pressure = Hg falls
Measuring Enclosed Gas Pressure
Units of Pressure
SI Unit = Pascal (Pa)
Atmosphere = atm (used to report air pressure)