Session Objectives. Brief overview of learning theoriesDevelopments in learning theoriesEmerging learning paradigm. Learning Theories. Developmental theoriesBehavioral theoriesCognitive theories. Learning Theories. Behaviorist TheoriesCognitive - Constructivist Theories. Behaviorist Theories
1. How People Learn Some Theoretical Perspectives By
Dr. M. Kandan
2. Session Objectives
Brief overview of learning theories
Developments in learning theories
Emerging learning paradigm
3. Learning Theories Developmental theories
4. Learning Theories
Cognitive - Constructivist Theories
5. Behaviorist Theories B.F. Skinner and other behavioral theorists were concerned with observable indications of learning.
They concentrated on observable 'cause and effect' relationships
They reasoned that teachers could link together responses involving lower-level skills and create a learning "chain" to teach higher-level skills.
The teacher would determine all the skills needed to lead up to the desired behavior and make sure students learned them all in a step-by-step manner.
6. Cognitive - Constructivist Theories Many educational psychologists, Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner etc, found the behavioral approach unsatisfying.
They proposed that children actively construct knowledge and this construction of knowledge happens in a social context.
By building on the child's experiences and providing moderately challenging tasks teachers can provide the 'intellectual scaffolding' to help children learn and progress through the different stages of development.
7. Cognitive - Constructivist Theories Constructivism emphasize students' ability to solve real-life, practical problems.
In constructivist approach students typically work in cooperative groups rather than individually.
The role of the teacher in constructivist models is to arrange for required resources and act as a guide to students while they set their own goals and 'teach themselves’.
Students tend to focus on projects that require solutions to problems.
8. Models of Instruction/Learning Direct Instruction/Explicit Teaching
Problem Based Learning
9. Direct Instruction/Explicit Teaching Systematic method for presenting material in small steps, pausing to check for student understanding and eliciting active and successful participation from all students.
This model of instruction is well grounded in Behaviorist.
Transmission model as opposed to an information-processing' model.
10. Mastery Learning Mastery learning is based on the belief that all children can learn when provided with conditions that are appropriate for their learning.
It is a learning model that is group-based, teacher-paced approach to instruction in which students learn in cooperation with their classmates.
Fits in best with the traditional content-focused curriculum.
Curriculum is based on well defined learning objectives that are organized appropriately.
The role of the teachers is as instructional leader and learning facilitator.
11. Problem Based Learning(PBL) PBL results from the process of working toward the understanding and resolution of a problem.
PBL makes students more engaged in learning .
The ill-structured problem scenario calls forth critical and creative thinking.
PBL promotes metacognition and self-regulated learning.
PBL is a learner-centered educational method.
PBL is based on real world problems.
Role of the teacher in PBL is that of a facilitator.
12. Collaborative Learning Collaborative learning is cognitive in nature.
Students work in teams to master academic materials.
Each student on the team would be responsible to become 'an expert' in one aspect of the academic task and are responsible for teaching that aspect to the others.
13. Cognitive Apprenticeship Cognitive Apprenticeship is a method aimed primarily at teaching the processes that experts use to handle complex tasks
Focus of this learning-through-guided-experience is on cognitive and metacognitive skills
This method includes:
Modeling, coaching, articulation, reflection, exploration
14. Discovery Learning Jerome Bruner was influential in defining Discovery Learning.
Discovery learning is an approach to instruction through which students interact with their environment-by exploring and performing experiments.
It is most successful when students have prerequisite knowledge and undergo some structured experiences.
Modern technology can now provide a virtual environment for students to explore.
15. Observational Learning Observational learning occurs when an observer's behavior changes after viewing the behavior of a model.
The observer will imitate the model's behavior if the model possesses characteristics that the observer finds attractive or desirable.
When the model's behavior is rewarded, the observer is more likely to reproduce the rewarded behavior.
Learning by observation involves four separate processes: attention, retention, production and motivation.
16. What do we mean by learning?
Reflect for a couple of minutes on what do you understand about learning.
Take a piece of paper and write down what do you mean by the word learning.
17. What do we mean by learning? Learning is the increase of knowledge.
Learning is memorizing.
Learning is the acquisition of facts, procedures, etc., which can be retained and/or used in practice.
Learning is the abstraction of meaning.
Learning is an interpretive process aimed at the understanding of reality.
Learning is the ability to apply a skill or fact to real life.
18. Degrees or levels of learning Life is not one-dimensional, and so is learning.
The formation of habits requires a different type of learning from the memorization of facts.
Understanding and forming complex ideas is another level of learning than understanding and forming abstract ideas.
we learn through experience that ice is cold.
we learn to speak with observation.
19. Factors affecting learning Motivation
20. Modes of learning Vision mode involves sight and mental imagery, and this type of person learns best by seeing.
Audition mode involves hearing and speaking; the person with this strength learns best by hearing and discussing.
Kinesthesia mode involves large and small muscle movements, and this type of person learns best by doing.
21. What is Learning Styles? A learning style is a unique pattern of behavior and performance by which an individual approaches an educational experience. It's a preference, our most comfortable way to learn.
Learning styles are formed in the brain and personality, molded by human development and affected by physiological, psychological, environmental, and situational variables.
22. Kolb's Theory of Learning Styles Kolb showed that learning styles could be seen on a continuum running from:
concrete experience: being involved in a new experience.
reflective observation: watching others or developing observations about own experience.
abstract conceptualization: creating theories to explain observations.
active experimentation: using theories to solve problems, make decisions.
23. Hartman’s teaching styles to suit various learning style Concrete experiencer--offer laboratories, field work, observations or trigger films.
Reflective observer--use logs, journals or brainstorming.
Abstract conceptualizer--lectures, papers and analogies work well.
Active experimenter--offer simulations, case studies, projects.
24. Share Your Best Learning Experiences Take a piece of paper and write down the best learning experience you ever had, may be in school, college, etc. (3 minutes)
Form a group of six and identify a Facilitator for the group. (1 minutes)
The task is to share your best learning experiences in the group and discuss about the reason for the feelings. (10 minutes)
Facilitator to facilitate the group discussion and present it to the larger group (5 minutes)
25. Approach to Teaching The traditional approaches to teaching is “instructivism” - teacher-centered educational methods based on Behaviorism.
Behaviorism oversimplifies human behavior and that it sees the human being as an automation instead of a creature of will and purpose.
Knowledge is in possession of the teacher.
Knowledge transferred through lecture method.
26. Approach to Teaching Today constructivist teaching is based on recent research about the human brain and what is known about how learning occurs.
Constructivists view learning as the result of mental construction where by students learn by fitting new information together with what they already know.
27. Approach to Teaching The teacher is a reflective practitioner - facilitator, guide, coach.
Uses learner-centered strategies to assist students to shape and direct their own learning.
Knowledge is created by the learner.
28. Constructivist Teaching Emphasizes learning and not teaching
Encourages learner inquiry.
Acknowledges the critical role of experience in learning.
Takes the learner’s mental model into account.
Emphasizes performance and understanding when assessing learning.
29. Constructivist Teaching Supports cooperative learning.
Involves learner in real world situations and emphasizes the context in which learning takes place.
Provides opportunity to construct new knowledge and understanding from authentic experience.
30. New Approach
31. Development Methodology