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Bioterrorism and Food Safety Gregory Evans, PhD, MPH JAPHI ANNUAL CONFERENCE October 28, 2004. Subway riders injured in Aum Shinrikyo Sarin gas attack, Tokyo, March 20, 1995. (AP Photo/Chikumo Chiaki ) . http://www.terrorismanswers.com/groups/aumshinrikyo.html. Anthrax Spores.

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Bioterrorism and food safety gregory evans phd mph japhi annual conference october 28 2004 l.jpg

Bioterrorism and Food SafetyGregory Evans, PhD, MPHJAPHI ANNUAL CONFERENCEOctober 28, 2004


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Subway riders injured in Aum Shinrikyo Sarin gas attack,

Tokyo, March 20, 1995. (AP Photo/Chikumo Chiaki )

http://www.terrorismanswers.com/groups/aumshinrikyo.html



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“in the Soviets’ view, the best biological agents were those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

Ken Alibek


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The Quranic Concept of War those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

Terror struck into the hearts of the enemies is not only a means, it is the end in itself. Once a condition of terror into the opponent’s heart is obtained hardly anything is left to be achieved. It is the point where the means and the end meet and merge. Terror is not a means of imposing decision upon the enemy; it is the decision we wish to impose upon him.


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Courtesy of the US Department of State those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2001/html/10237.htm


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Courtesy of the US Department of State those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2001/


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Religiously Motivated Terrorism those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”


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Courtesy of The Federal Bureau of Investigation those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

http://www.fbi.gov/terrorinfo/terrorism.htm


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Why an Increasing Risk of Bioterrorism those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”


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Changing Goals of Terrorism those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”


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Advantages to those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

Biological Agent Use


Most likely agents l.jpg
Most Likely Agents those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”


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Most Likely Agents those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

  • Category 1 = Anthrax Smallpox

  • Category 2 = Plague Tularemia

  • Category 3 = Botulism ToxinViral Hemorrhagic Fever


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Likely Bioterrorism Agents those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

  • Category B

    • c. burnetti (Q Fever)

    • brucella spp. (Brucellosis)

    • burkholderia mallei (Glanders)

    • burkholderiapseudomallei (Melsosdosis)

    • alphaviruses (Viral Encephalitis)

    • rickettsia prowazekii (Typhus)

    • Toxins (Ricin)

    • Staph Enterotoxin B

    • chlamydia psittaci (Psittacosis)

    • Other Foodborne agents

    • Other Waterborne agents

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Critical Biological Agents for Public Health Preparedness, 1999


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Some Examples of Bioterrorism Involving Food those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”


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Outbreak of those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”Shigella dysenteriae Type 2

  • Dallas, Texas – A large Medical Center

  • 29 Oct – 1 Nov 96 – 12 Laboratory workers experienced severe gastrointestinal illness

  • All had eaten pastries left in their breakroom between the night and morning shifts on October 29th 1996


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Shigella dysenteriae those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.” Type 2

  • Rare organism

  • Also known as Schmitz bacillus

  • Does not produce Shiga toxin

  • Much less severe infection than Type 1

  • Initial symptoms – Nausea, abdominal discomfort, and bloating. Followed approximately 24hrs later by diarrhea

  • Infection confirmed with positive stool culture for S dysenteriae


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Lessons from Dallas those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

Outbreak of S dysenteriae Type 2

  • Covert contamination of food items is one of the most uncomplicated forms of bioterrorism

  • Better lab security is needed

    • Control access to laboratory stock cultures

    • Lock storage freezers

    • Maintain documentation of every individual gaining access


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Other Foodborne those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”“Bioterrorism” Incidents

  • 1960s – Several Japanese outbreaks of typhoid and dysentery traced to research biologist intentionally contaminating food items

  • 1970 – 4 Canadian students were ill after consuming food contaminated with embryonated Ascaris suum ova, a large ringworm infecting pigs.

  • 1984 – In Oregon, more than 750 people became ill after being exposed to Salmonella from contaminated salad bars.


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Salad Bar Contamination those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

  • September 1984, The Dalles, Oregon

  • 10 salad bars contaminated with Salmonella bacteria

  • More than 750 people became sick

  • Officials slow to identify the outbreak as deliberate

  • “We really lost our innocence over this. We weren't suspicious enough." Michael Skeels of the Oregon State Public Health Laboratory in Portland.


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Food Supply Vulnerability those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

  • January 2003, Michigan

  • Four families (18 people) experienced acute illness

    • Burning of the mouth, nausea, vomiting, dizziness

  • Recall of 1,700 pounds of beef

  • 148 more illnesses reported following recall

  • Four hospitalized, no fatalities

  • February 12, 2003, supermarket employee indicted

  • Poisoned 200 pounds of meat with “Black Leaf 40” insecticide, primary ingredient is nicotine


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Failing to Report those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

  • Saturday, in March 1997

  • Sun Harbor Airport, Phoenix, Arizona

  • 737 arrives from Acapulco, 50+ on board w/diarrhea

  • Plane offloads 25 passengers to ambulances

    • 6 patients admitted to local hospital

  • County Health Officer learned of the event listening to the radio (NPR) the following Monday

  • Public Health had no names and no stool samples

  • The aircraft was cleaned, reloaded and continued to Detroit the same day


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Steps in Food Safety and Security those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

  • Identify the hazards

  • Assess the risk

  • Analyze risk control measures

  • Make control decisions

  • Implement risk controls

  • Supervise and review


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Identify the Hazards those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

  • Conduct review of each activity in food production process

  • Concentrate on where people have access to the process

  • Food can be contaminated with biological and chemical agents at all points in process


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Assess the Risk those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

  • Risk level severity can go from catastrophic to negligible

  • Risk level probability can go from frequent to unlikely


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Examples of Hazards those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

  • Trucks not secured

  • Little security in hiring personnel

  • Water to clean products could be contaminated

  • Facilities not secured


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Risk Control Measures those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

  • Put up security cameras

  • Put guard on doors

  • Provide warning devices on doors

  • Lock doors and use panic bars to open

  • Put new hires under close supervision for first 90 days

  • Do background checks on employees


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Make Risk Control Decisions those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

  • Determine which risks are the most severe

  • Determine which risk are the most probable


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Implement Risk Control Decisions those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

  • Put control measures in budget

  • Train personnel on new procedures

  • Develop incentives for employees and management to implement control measures


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Supervise and Review those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”

  • Monitor effectiveness of controls

  • Provide frequent feedback to employees and management


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2000-2001 Bioterrorism Survey those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”


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Bioterrorism Risk Perceptions those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”


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Bioterrorism Risk Perceptions those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”


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Bioterrorism Risk Perceptions those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”


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Bioterrorism Risk Perceptions those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”


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Questions those for which there was no prevention and no cure. For those agents for which vaccines or treatment existed,… antibiotic-resistant or immuno-suppressive variants were to be developed.”?

www.bioterrorism.slu.edu www.emerginginfections.slu.edu

www.cfsan.fda.gov