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2. The Importance of a Standard. even among speakers of the same dialect, vowel articulation variesif a phonetician wants to describe a vowel X as being a certain distance from a vowel Y, we have to know where Y isfor this reason we have Cardinal Vowels, idealizations of vowels at fixed distances from each other within the vowel spacearbitrary reference points from which we can describe real vowels in a language.
Vowel Sounds: Cardinal Vowels

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1. 1 Vowel Sounds: Cardinal Vowels Roca & Johnson, Chapter 5

2. 2 The Importance of a Standard even among speakers of the same dialect, vowel articulation varies if a phonetician wants to describe a vowel X as being a certain distance from a vowel Y, we have to know where Y is for this reason we have Cardinal Vowels, idealizations of vowels at fixed distances from each other within the vowel space arbitrary reference points from which we can describe real vowels in a language

3. 3 Primary Cardinal Vowels evenly spaced around the outside of the possible vowel area

4. 4 Recording of the Primary Cardinal Vowels Warning: the symbols chosen by the IPA for English are those of the nearest cardinal vowels. A given symbol for English may correspond poorly to the same cardinal vowel symbol.

5. 5 Recording of Primary Cardinal Vowels evenly spaced around the outside of the possible vowel area

6. 6 Problems with Cardinal Vowel System must be learned by oral instruction a formant chart shows vowels 5,6,7,8 much closer together than 1,2,3,4,5 so these vowels represent only auditory and not acoustic equidistance confusion over whether the vowels are described in terms of tongue height or acoustic properties

7. 7 Advantage of Cardinal Vowel System allows the vowels of individual languages to be described with far greater precision than any other method real vowels can be described by adding diacritics to the cardinal vowels e4 e lower than cardinal e e3 e higher than cardinal e e= e back from cardinal e o? o in front of cardinal o

8. 8 Vowel Typology (1) Basic vowel system i u a maximized perceptual difference

9. 9 Vowel Typology (2) Most common system i u e o a

10. 10 Lip Rounding Front vowels are, by default, unrounded Back vowels are, by default, rounded with rounding increasing as the height of the vowel increases the back of the mouth is smaller than the front extending the lips increases the volume of the cavity for high back vowels

11. 11 Secondary Cardinal Vowels Rounded feature is reverse of primary cardinal vowels, i.e., Front vowels are rounded Back vowels are unrounded

12. 12 Recording of Secondary Cardinal Vowels

13. 13 Chapter 6 Phonological Processes involving Vowel Features

14. 14 Vowel Features: Primary Cardinal Vowels i e E a A ? o u [high] + - - - - - - + [low] - - - + + - - - [back] - - - - + + + + [round] - - - - - + + +

15. 15 Vowel Features: Secondary Cardinal Vowels y O ? ? ? ? ? ? [high] + - - - - - - + [low] - - - + + - - - [back] - - - - + + + + [round] + + + + + - - -

16. 16 Vowel Feature Dependencies (1) vowel roundness is dependent on lip movement [labial] [?round] [+round]: u o ? [-round]: i e E a p b not specified for roundness because not[labial] t d h . . .

17. 17 Vowel Feature Dependencies (2) vowel height and tongue advancement are dependent on tongue body movement [dorsal] [?high] [?low] [?back]

18. 18 Distinguishing Vowels In the vowel feature tables above, two pairs of vowels are not distinguished: e E ? o [high] - - - - [low] - - - - [back] - - + + [round] - - + +

19. 19 Distinguishing e from E and ? from o [radical] -refers to tongue root [?ATR] -advanced tongue root Distiguishes these vowels from one another: e E o ? [ATR] + - + -

20. 20 Vowel Feature Summary features: [?high] [?low] [?back] [?round] [?ATR] Central vowels (/?/ in English): [-round,+back]

21. 21 The Turkish Noun Paradigm worksheet Nom.sg. Gen.sg. Nom. pl. Gen.pl. g?z g?zin g?zler g?zlerin mum mum?n mumlAr mumlAr?n k?n k?n?n k?nlAr k?nlAr?n gyl gylin gyller gyllerin

22. 22 Vowel Harmony in Turkish suffixes assume the [?back] feature of the root morpheme i p i n s A p ? n [dorsal] [dorsal] [dorsal] [dorsal] [+high] [+high] [-high] [+high] [-back] [-back] [+back] [+back]

23. 23 The Underlying Representation of the Genitive Morpheme The genitive suffix is underspecified in the lexicon, i.e. the feature [?back] is not specified in the lexicon. i p i n s A p ? n [dorsal] [dorsal] [dorsal] [dorsal] [+high] [+high] [-high] [+high] [-back] [+back]

24. 24 The Derived Representation of the Genitive Morpheme suffixes take on the [?back] feature of the root morpheme i p i n s A p ? n [+high] [+high] [-high] [+high] [dorsal] [dorsal] [dorsal] [dorsal] [-back] [+back]

25. 25 The Derived Representation of Plural + Genitive suffixes take on the [?back] feature of the root morpheme i p l e r i n [+high] [-high] [+high] [dorsal] [dorsal] [dorsal] [-back]

26. 26 Compare the SPE (Linear) Account of Harmony V ? V / V C* ______ [?back] [?back] [?back] A front vowel becomes a back vowel when following a back vowel; conversely, A back vowel becomes a front vowel when following a front vowel.

27. 27 Problem with the SPE Account To get iplerin or sAplAr?n, the rule must apply twice: 1. the backness feature transmits from the root to the plural 2. the backness feature transmits from the plural to the genitive. The claim here is that the harmony does not derive from the root but from a morpheme chain.

28. 28 Vowel disharmony in Turkish workshhet 4, G eS eSvAri [-back] [+back] sAbah sAbahlejin ArAp ArabistAn What is the lexical representation for these suffixes?

29. 29 The Underlying Representation of -vAri, -lejin, istan These suffixes are fully specified in the lexicon, the full specification blocks harmony. [dorsal] [dorsal] [+high] [+high] [+back] [-back]

30. 30 Opaque Vowels Vowels that are fully specified in the lexicon are called opaque vowels. Underspecified vowels are called transparent vowels.

31. 31 The No Crossing Constraint worksheet 4, G Association lines may not cross. This constraint disallows: *A d e t l A r [dorsal] [dorsal] [dorsal] [+back] [-back]

32. 32 Umlaut in German and English Modern German and English irregular plurals are idiosyncratic Unlike regular plurals, the irregular plural forms are memorized by native speakers along with the singular However, at one time in the history of these languages, these plurals were rule-governed and their change to irregular forms demonstrates a property similar to vowel harmony

33. 33 English Irregular Plurals Modern English Prehistoric Old English goose geese gos gosiz tooth teeth toth tothiz foot feet fot fotiz

34. 34 Evolution of the Irregular Plural g o s i z [+back] [-back] [dorsal] [dorsal] The [-back] feature spread to the first vowel When the first vowel became a front vowel, the plural was distinguished from the singular by this vowel and the [-iz] dropped away.

35. 35 R&J?s account of the current state of these irregular plurals in the lexicon, goose is marked with a floating [-back] that associates to goose to mark the plural. goose ? geese [+back] [-back] [dorsal]


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