Waste to bio fuel and landfill reclamation
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Waste to Bio-Fuel and Landfill reclamation. What’s in the presentation?. Who and where are Spartan Group The problem Spartan Group solves Advantages of the Spartan Process The Spartan Process Results Who can use it Benefits of the Spartan solution Waste to Ethanol Process - large scale

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Waste to Bio-Fuel and Landfill reclamation

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Waste to bio fuel and landfill reclamation

Waste to Bio-Fueland Landfill reclamation


What s in the presentation

What’s in the presentation?

  • Who and where are Spartan Group

  • The problem Spartan Group solves

  • Advantages of the Spartan Process

  • The Spartan Process

  • Results

  • Who can use it

  • Benefits of the Spartan solution

  • Waste to Ethanol Process - large scale

  • Local Employment and Education

  • Potential by-products and future development of the Spartan Group Process


Spartan group

Spartan Group

Spartan Group is committed to the development and deployment of technologies that improve the well being of people and their environment.

We provide real world solutions, that are sustainable and affordable, to real world problems

We do this by working as a multidisciplinary team that draws on the best research and focuses it.


Spartan group1

Spartan Group

  • Spartan Group collaborates with leading researchers and enjoys the support of leading academic institutions:

    • Head of Sustainability Platform, Institute of Food Research

    • Dean of Science University of East Anglia, world authority on bacteria fermentations

    • Pro Vice Chancellor University of East Anglia, head of school of Environmental Science

    • Chief Scientific Officer Genome Lab John Innes Centre

    • Dept. of Design Engineering University of Sussex

    • Lecturer in Mechanical Engineering and Dept. Head of Rolls-Royce Fuels Laboratory, University of Sussex

    • Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London

  • Spartan Group also works closely with supporting industries, for example:

    • Ricardo - International provider of technological and engineering innovation to automotive, transport and energy industries


The problem

The Problem

  • Large organic waste streams such as fruit, vegetable and paper waste

  • Increases in size of landfill site encroaching on residential areas

  • Proximity of homes to waste sites causing health hazards and unpleasant life experience

  • Landfill tax expenses

  • Disposal of waste:

    • Limited land space and increased cost

    • Contribution to climate change: methane or carbon dioxide production

    • Health: landfill flaring and hygiene


Spartan group response

Spartan Group Response

  • Use of waste with high cellulose and starch content

  • Pre-processed waste

    • Paper / Card / Packaging

    • Food waste

  • Non Pre-processed waste - Agricultural waste

    • Stalks and husks

    • Garden waste

    • Fruit and vegetable waste

    • Invasive water plants

  • Pre-Processing of the waste stream: shredding, sterilisation and wetting

  • Enzyme usage: degradation to release fermentable sugars


Spartan group response advantages

Spartan Group Response:Advantages

  • Prevention of landfill expansion

  • Removal of existing landfill

  • Doesn’t interfere with food chain

  • No extra land use for crop growth and release of land for food crops

  • No seasonality of feedstock

  • Beneficial by-products: briquettes from any undigested waste for fuel

  • No extra transport costs


Simplicity

Simplicity

  • The Spartan Group Process can be designed in any size to suite desired use

  • It can be separated into three distinct stages that can be used together or separately:

    • Hydrolysis to sugar solution

    • Fermentation

    • Utilisation of fuel by distillation or Fuel Cell


The process

The Process


Process continued

Process Continued


Enzyme hydrolysis

Enzyme Hydrolysis

  • Breakdown of solid waste with Enzymes:

  • Add water to waste at a 2:1 ratio - comparable to brewing

  • Physical agitation, causing a small amount of physical breakdown

  • Sterilise using heat

  • Cool to 50°C

  • Add Enzymes, causing further breakdown at a molecular level

  • Enzymes are supplied by Spartan Group

  • For full enzyme breakdown, 2 hours is required


  • Disposal

    Disposal

    • All by-products of Spartan Group Process are non-pathogenic and environmentally safe.

    • There is no use of strong acids or toxic chemicals.

    • All liquids produced in the Spartan Group Process can be disposed of into grey/rain water.


    Fermentation

    Fermentation

    • Use of sugr by Yeast

  • Sugar solution from Enzyme Hydrolysis

    • Cool to 30°C

    • Add Yeast

    • Yeast is supplied by Spartan Group

    • Slow Agitation

  • For a full batch fermentation, 8 hours is required.

  • The process can be adapted for continual fermentation by constant addition of sugar solution, leading to continuous production of Ethanol.


  • Distillation

    Distillation


    Waste to bio fuel and landfill reclamation

    Demonstration prototype

    Schematic of the Spartan Group Process prototype


    Waste to bio fuel and landfill reclamation

    Paper being added to the Spartan Group Process Prototype


    After digestion sugar solution

    After digestion – sugar solution

    • Paper Waste


    After digestion sugar solution1

    Mixed Waste

    After digestion – sugar solution


    Calculated yields of spartan group process

    Calculated Yields of Spartan Group Process

    Green Waste 1000kg

    400kg fermentable sugars

    120kg Ethanol = 152 litres

    Paper 1000kg

    600kg fermentable sugars

    180kg Ethanol = 228 litres

    Mixed 1000kg

    500kg fermentable sugars

    150kg Ethanol = 190 litres


    Potential uses

    Potential Uses

    • Scalable and versatile:

    • Landfill sites

    • Industrial Food Manufacturers

    • Restaurants / Cafes

    • Food Distributors

    • Domiciliary

    • Apartment buildings

    • Supermarkets

    • Ocean liners

    • Trains

    • Airports

    • Hotels

    • Hospitals

    • Schools / Universities

    • Offices


    Users

    Users

    • Currently we are in discussion with UK based companies:

      • McCarthy Food wholesalers

      • Fred Olsen Cruises

      • Finnemechanica (defence and resilience applications)

    • With joint ventures internationally:

      • Africa: Dandora dump landfill reduction and reclamation

      • Water hyacinth to Butanol project in Lake Victoria

      • US: Small scale household and metropolitan use (in discussion)

    • Spartan partners are also founder members of the UK Government’s Institute for Sustainability


    Benefits

    Benefits

    • Reduction of solids to landfill

    • Removal of existing landfill waste and reclamation of landfill sites

    • Bio-fuel production without using food or land resources

    • Minimal impact on environment

    • Improvement of quality of life surrounding landfill sites

    • Increased local job opportunities

    • Can be applied to many different situations from small household to municipal waste sites


    Waste to ethanol process

    Waste to Ethanol Process


    Design requirements

    Design Requirements

    • Ability to sort all waste – to maximise both fuel yield and recyclable waste

    • Ability to expand

    • Robust systems with fail-safe processes

    • Generic Plant and Equipment

    • Utilising both by-products from the process & local conditions

    • An Independent “Stand Alone” Plant


    Ethanol plant schematic

    Ethanol Plant Schematic.


    Waste to ethanol plant

    Waste to Ethanol Plant


    Local employment and education

    Local Employment and Education

    • Spartan Group strongly advocate academic and social improvement

    • Local people will be employed for running of the plant and waste sorting

    • They will be supplied with full training in the maintenance of the Spartan Group Process plant

    • In addition to Spartan Group Education training, employees will be able gain international standard qualifications

    • The Spartan Group team will create links with local education services and Universities allowing the opportunity for student exchange between the UK and India


    Potential by products

    Potential By-products

    • Lignin

      • Briquettes for burning

      • Active coal

    • Clay

      • Building materials

    • Distillers sludge

      • Production of fodder yeast

      • Vitamin B12

    • Carbon Dioxide

      • Liquid CO2 / Dry ice

      • Combined with H2 can make Methanol and Ethanol

  • By-products could be obtained on a modified industrial size plant, known as a bio-refinery, excluding briquettes which can achieved small scale

  • The bio-refinery approach can increase profit through isolation of by-products


  • Simplicity1

    Simplicity

    • The Spartan Group Process can be designed in any size to suite desired use

    • It can be separated into three distinct stages that can be sold together or separately:

      • Hydrolysis to sugar solution

      • Fermentation

      • Utilisation of fuel by distillation or Fuel Cell


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