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1 st Year of SO2 data from OMI. N. Krotkov 1 , S. Carn 2 , A. Krueger 2 , P. K. Bhartia 3 , K. Yang 4 Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology (GEST) Center, UMBC, Baltimore, MD Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (NASA/UMBC), UMBC

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1st Year of SO2 data from OMI

  • N. Krotkov1, S. Carn2, A. Krueger2 , P. K. Bhartia3 , K. Yang4

  • Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology (GEST) Center, UMBC, Baltimore, MD

  • Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (NASA/UMBC), UMBC

  • Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD

  • SSAI, Lanham , MD


The AURA OMI SO2 volcanic data set will continue the TOMS SO2 record, which covers a quarter-century: http://toms.umbc.edu


OMI SO2 algorithm

An OMI SO2 Band Residual Difference ( BRD) algorithm uses calibrated residuals at SO2 absorption band centers produced by the NASA operational ozone algorithm (OMTO3)

[Bhartia et al 2002]


OMI SO2 image of the Anatahan (Mariana Islands)

Anatahan (Mariana Islands) eruption cloud on April 7, 2005, produced by an explosive eruption on April 6.

White regions are meteorological clouds.



OMI SO2 image of passive degassing from Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu (16.25ºS, 168.12ºE) on February 20, 2005.


SO Vanuatu (16.25ºS, 168.12ºE) on February 20, 2005.2 emissions from lignite-burning power plants in the Balkan region

SO2 enhancements observed by GOME in February 1998 [Eisinger and Burrows, GRL 1998].

SO2 enhancements detected by OMI in February 2005


SO Vanuatu (16.25ºS, 168.12ºE) on February 20, 2005.2 burdens over China

  • 70% of China’s energy is derived from coal burning

  • SO2 emissions increased at a rate 35%/decade in 1979-2000

  • China’s sulfate aerosol loading has increased by 17%/decade in 1979-2000 [Massie, Torres and Smith 2004]

  • 65,000 SO2 tons/day emitted in 1995 [Streets & Waldhof, 2000]


Anthropogenic SO Vanuatu (16.25ºS, 168.12ºE) on February 20, 2005.2 burdens in Asia

  • Norislk Nickel is one of Russia’s heaviest industrial polluters

  • World’s biggest producer of nickel and palladium

  • Plans to reduce SO2 emissions by 80-90% by 2015


  • SO Vanuatu (16.25ºS, 168.12ºE) on February 20, 2005.2 emissions associated with oil and gas refining in the Persian Gulf (Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Iran, UAE)

  • Outgassing flares from oil fields in the Gulf produce detectable SO2


Major SO Vanuatu (16.25ºS, 168.12ºE) on February 20, 2005.2 sources in Africa:

Nyiragongo

(DR Congo)

GOME observation of the time evolution of the SO2 plume over Nyamuragira volcano during its December 1996 eruption.

  • More than 90% of South Africa's electricity is generated by the combustion of coal

  • Coal-fired power plants not required to use scrubbers to remove sulfur from emissions

OMI: South African power plants (e.g., near Johannesburg); copper smelting


South East Asia Vanuatu (16.25ºS, 168.12ºE) on February 20, 2005.

Anatahan (Mariana Is)

Manam (PNG)

Ambrym (Vanuatu)


Surface UV from TOMS/OMI measurements Vanuatu (16.25ºS, 168.12ºE) on February 20, 2005.

  • N. Krotkov1, J. Herman2, P.K. Bhartia2 , A. Tanskanen3 , A. Arola4

  • Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology (GEST) Center, UMBC, Baltimore, MD

  • Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD

  • Finnish Meteorological Institute , Helsinki, Finland

  • Finnish Meteorological Institute , Kuopio, Finland


Omi science questions
OMI Science questions Vanuatu (16.25ºS, 168.12ºE) on February 20, 2005.

  • Is the ozone layer recovering ?

  • What are sources and distributions of aerosols and trace gases that affect global air quality?

  • What are the roles of tropospheric ozone and aerosols in climate change?

  • What are the causes of surface UV-B change ?

Levelt et al “ Science objectives of Ozone Monitoring Instrument “ in IEEE- TGRS AURA special issue


Uv products noon irradiance daily cie dose 305nm 310nm 324nm 380nm cie uv index
UV products: noon irradiance Vanuatu (16.25ºS, 168.12ºE) on February 20, 2005.+ Daily CIE dose(305nm, 310nm, 324nm, 380nm, CIE - UV index)

324nm

305nm

380nm

Erythemal – UV index


Current applications of toms omi uv data
Current Applications of TOMS/OMI UV data Vanuatu (16.25ºS, 168.12ºE) on February 20, 2005.

1. Sun burn and skin cancer PHS, NIH, WHO

2. Eye cataracts PHS, NIH, WHO

3. Plant damage - Crop yields USDA

4. Food chain - Land – Oceans USDA, NOAA

5. Effect on insect population NIH, PHS, WHO


TOMS/OMI UV algorithm Vanuatu (16.25ºS, 168.12ºE) on February 20, 2005.

OMI Ozone

Sun: Fo ( ~ 3% uncertainty )

Clouds and non-absorbing aerosols are well corrected

Clouds

Fc ~ FO3(1 – R)

Absorbing aerosols are still a major problem

Aerosols


Cloud correction algorithm ct
Cloud correction algorithm (CT) Vanuatu (16.25ºS, 168.12ºE) on February 20, 2005.

ISCCP

TOMS

daily

Satellite CT estimate

10 day

monthly

UV- Williams et al GRL 2004

(1:1)

(1:1)

PAR - Dye et al GRL 1995

Ground CT measurement


Clouds over snow correction
Clouds over snow correction Vanuatu (16.25ºS, 168.12ºE) on February 20, 2005.

  • Surface albedo is a crucial parameter for estimation of the surface UV in regions with temporary snow or ice.

  • OMI UV algorithm applies an albedo climatology derived from the N7/TOMS reflectivity data using the moving time window method.

  • The accuracy of the surface UV estimates for high latitudes has improved.However, the estimates for albedo transient periods are still uncertain.

http://promote.fmi.fi/MTW_www/MTW.html


The TOMS-Brewer difference for erythemally weighted UV irradiance and for UV irradiance at 305, 310, and 324 nm. Summer noon values for mostly clear sky conditions (TOMS reflectivity <0.2)


The TOMS-Brewer difference for erythemally weighted summer noon UV irradiance for mostly clear sky conditions (TOMS reflectivity <0.2)

Urban locations


Long-range ABSORBING aerosol transport in free troposphere is uniquely tracked by OMI/TOMS Aerosol Index (AI)

US

AI cannot detect boundary layer UV absorbing aerosols resulting in overestimates of UV irradiance that are frequently 10% and sometimes 20%.

India

Southeast Asia

TOMS AI examples of high-density smoke aerosols that affect various coastal regions in the US, India, and Southeast Asia. Lesser amounts of smoke, dust, and carbonaceous aerosols frequently cause overestimations of UV irradiance if ignored.


UV reduction due to absorbing aerosols in free troposphere (dust, smoke) is corrected using positive AI >0.5 data

Industrial aerosols close to the ground are not seen in AI data (AI <0), so they are treated as thin clouds, which leads to positive UV bias


Ground AEROSOL absorption measurements (dust, smoke) is corrected using positive AI >0.5 data

UV Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

AERONET CIMEL sun-sky radiometers

Brewer spectrometer ozone, SO2, NO2 [Cede and Herman]

Since 2002, the NASA TOMS, AERONET and USDA UVB programs have shared equipment, personnel and analysis tools to quantify aerosol UV-VIS absorption using a combination of ground based radiation measurements.


TOMS UV Correction for Absorbing Aerosols in Greenbelt, USA 1

TOMS/Ground UV

ABS at 325nm

ABS at 325nm

The ratio between satellite estimated (by TOMS UV algorithm7-10) and measured (by UVMFRSR) total (direct plus diffuse) surface UV irradiance at 325nm versus aerosol absorption optical thickness at 325nm inferred from combined UV-MFRSR and AERONET measurements at NASA/GSFC site. The line shows theoretical relationship derived from radiative transfer modeling10.

Time series of aerosol absorption optical thickness tabs at 368nm, derived from 17 months UV-MFRSR operation at NASA GSFC site in Maryland, US. The data are for cloud-free and snow-free conditions and tabs(440)>0.1. Individual tabs(368) values were averaged over 1-hour period of time within ±60min of the AERONET inversion.

1Krotkov et al. Opt. Engineering 2005


TOMS UV Correction for Absorbing Aerosols in 2 urban sites 1

SZA=20-30

SZA=40-50

SZA=60-70

The ratio of TOMS to Brewer irradiance at 324nm against aerosol absorption optical thickness in Thessaloniki, Greece

The ratio of TOMS to Brewer irradiance at 324nm against aerosol absorption optical thickness at Ispra, Italy

1Arola et al. accepted JGR 2005


Future applications of omi data
Future Applications of OMI data

1. Global mapping of PAR (400-700nm)

2. Actinic flux profile and J-rates for photochemistry models3. UV irradiance on tilted surfaces

4. Global mapping of underwater UV-PAR irradiance 5. Global primary production estimates

6. Global carbon cycle models




What are the causes of surface uv b change
What are the causes of surface UV-B change ?

  • Is the ozone layer recovering ?

  • Are there trends in cloudiness ( climate change) ?

  • What are sources and distributions of absorbing aerosols and trace gases?

  • What are the roles of tropospheric ozone and aerosols in modifying UV irradiance and actinic flux?

Levelt et al “ Science objectives of Ozone Monitoring Instrument “ in IEEE- TGRS AURA special issue


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