Recap types of particles
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Recap: Types of Particles. An atom is a chemically indivisible particle of an element. An element contains atoms of only one type. (eg. H, O, C) A molecule of a substance consists of two or more atoms

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Recap: Types of Particles

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Recap types of particles

Recap: Types of Particles

  • An atom is a chemically indivisible particle of an element.

  • An element contains atoms of only one type.

    (eg. H, O, C)

  • A molecule of a substance consists of two or more atoms

  • A compound is composed of more than one type of element joined by chemical bonds.


Chemical symbols of the elements

Chemical symbols of the elements

  • One or two letters, the first is always uppercase and the second always lowercase.

C carbon

Ca calcium

P phosphorus

Fe iron -ferrum

Pb lead - plumbum


Formula represents atoms present

Formula represents atoms present

Ammonia, NH3

Methane, CH4

Alcohol, CH3CH2OH


Chemical equation represents a change of one substance to another

Chemical equation represents a change of one substance to another.

Methane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water

CH4 + 2 O2 CO2 + 2 H2O


States of matter

States of Matter

  • Different states of a substance are different physical ways of packing its component particles.

  • A physical change is associated with a change of state.

  • A chemical change involves changing one substance into another.


Physical properties

Physical properties are the properties that a substance shows by itself, without changing or interacting with another substance

Colour

Melting point

Conductivity

Density

Surface tension

Physical Properties

Toby Hudson, (School of Chemistry, University of Sydney)

Toby Hudson, (School of Chemistry, University of Sydney)

1 L Br2

1 L Hg


Chemical properties

Chemical properties are the properties of a substance that result in the formation of a new substance

Flammability

Corrosiveness

Reactivity with acid

Chemical Properties

commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US_Navy_030328-M-0000X-005_Kuwaiti_firefighters_fight_to_secure_a_burning_oil_well_in_the_Rumaila_oilfields.jpg

http://www.plenrich.com/copper.htm


Physical vs chemical

Physical changes occur when a substance alters its physical form but NOT its composition

– the compound doesn’t change

– chemical bonds don’t form or break

e.g.: boiling of water, freezing of wax

Chemical changes occur when a substance (or a number of substances) is converted into a new substances

– the compound/allotrope changes

– chemical bonds form or break

e.g.: burning of H2 with O2 to give H2O, reacting zinc in hydrochloric acid

Physical vs Chemical

Self test: http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/a_p_chem.htm


Properties of matter

Properties of Matter

  • An intensive property is independent of the amount of substance present. (e.g. pH)

  • An extensive property depends on how much of a substance you have got. (e.g. volume)


Learning outcomes

Learning Outcomes:

  • By the end of this lecture, you should:

    • know how to write chemical symbols using the correct capitalisation

    • be able to work out which atoms are present in a compound from its formula

    • be able to describe the difference between a physical and a chemical property

    • be able to describe the difference between a physical and a chemical change

    • be able to describe the difference between an intensive and an extensive property

    • be able to complete the worksheet (if you haven’t already done so….)


Questions to complete for the next lecture

Questions to complete for the next lecture:

  • Complete the figure below showing the transformations between physical states

condensation

liquid

gas

vapourisation

solid


Questions to complete for the next lecture1

Questions to complete for the next lecture:

  • Label the following properties of matter as either intensive or extensive.

  • melting point

  • boiling point

  • mass

  • volume

  • density

  • concentration


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