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1917. An Important Year. Russia Surrenders. The Tsar Nicholas II had become very unpopular He was an autocrat (all power lay with him) Millions of Russians had died and the army was not doing well. Military defeats.

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1917

An Important Year


Russia surrenders
Russia Surrenders

  • The Tsar Nicholas II had become very unpopular

  • He was an autocrat (all power lay with him)

  • Millions of Russians had died and the army was not doing well.


Military defeats
Military defeats

  • Battles at Tannenburg and the Masurian lakes ended in disaster for the Russians.

    Such defeats continued because of:

  • POOR LEADERSHIP

  • LACK OF UNDERSTANDING OF NEW WEAPONS

  • LACK OF BASIC EQUIPMENT AT THE FRONT


The economy
The Economy

  • The war had a disastrous effect on the economy

  • Shortages of workers, especially on the land, meant food production fell

  • Poor transport meant supplies did not reach factories and food and raw materials rotted in storage

  • Shortages in food and other goods meant prices rose faster than peoples wages.


Who was too blame
Who was too blame?

  • In 1915, the Tsar had appointed himself Commander in Chief of the Russian Army

  • He was now directly responsible for the performance of the Army.


Revolution in 1917
Revolution in 1917

  • By 1917 the people of Petrograd were enduring the worst of the Russian winter

  • Persistent food and fuel shortages

  • News of unending causalities from the front.

  • The Russian people’s faith in the Tsar had been exhausted.


The tsar is overthrown
The Tsar is Overthrown

  • Spring of 1917 Revolution occurred when the Bolsheviks (Communists) overthrew the Tsar and his regime.

  • The new Government wanted out of the war and surrendered to the Germans.


America joins the war
America Joins the War

  • America was neutral at the beginning of the War. Why?

  • War costs lives and money

  • They had lots of German and British settlers so did not want an internal problem.

  • It was a European War over European problems


Why did they join
Why did they join?

● However German submarine attacks on American ships caused an outcry in the United States

● The Lusitania was sunk by Germany and 128 Americans drowned.

● Feelings among most Americans now ran very high after this.

● Germany wanted Mexico to join Germany in an alliance and attack America.

●This caused a storm of anti-German anger. America was moving closer to war.


Germany and mexico
Germany and Mexico

  • Zimmerman Telegram

  • Other points influenced entrance to the war, but the Zimmerman Telegram (sometimes called the "Zimmerman note" or "Zimmerman telegraph") finally pushed the US to war. The Zimmerman Telegram was sent from the German foreign secretary to the German Ambassador to Mexico. It stated the following:

  • On the first of February, 1917, submarine warfare will be reinstated unrestrictively.

  • The US has to stay neutral.

  • Germany proposes an alliance with Mexico on the following basis: If the US goes to war, Mexico must fight on the home front in an financially supported alliance with Germany; If Mexico agrees to fight, they will reconquer New Mexico, Texas and Arizona.

  • The telegraph was intercepted by British Intelligence and transmitted to the American government by the Brits.

  • This infuriated Americans. It was the same sort of alliance that plunged Europe into war.



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