Ap sensation perception
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 16

AP Sensation & Perception PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 107 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

AP Sensation & Perception. What is the difference?. Sensation: The ability to receive stimuli from the outside world. Perception: Your interpretation of the stimuli. Generally speaking, sensation is universal, perception is individual . The Five Major Senses. Vision (sight)

Download Presentation

AP Sensation & Perception

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Ap sensation perception

AP Sensation & Perception


What is the difference

What is the difference?

  • Sensation: The ability to receive stimuli from the outside world.

  • Perception: Your interpretation of the stimuli.

    Generally speaking, sensation is universal, perception is individual


The five major senses

The Five Major Senses

  • Vision (sight)

  • Auditory (Hearing )

  • Olfactory (smell)

  • Gustatory (taste)

  • Tactile (touch)


Threshold

Threshold

  • The ability to recognize stimuli depends on whether the amount of stimuli reaches the level of threshold.

  • Absolute threshold: the weakest amount of stimuli necessary for human sensory systems to recognize

  • Just noticeable difference: smallest increase/decrease that a person senses the difference.


Adaptation

Adaptation

  • If the level of a stimulus stays constant, a person’s sensory system will be able to block out (ignore) it.

  • Sensory systems will notice differences in level of stimuli.

  • Focus also plays a role


Vision

Vision

  • Most studied

  • Humans have the most complex system

  • Humans one of the few of the animal kingdom to see in color

  • Light goes through the pupil, then reaches the lens, which bends the light to the retina

  • The retina contains two types of light receptors:

  • Rods (black/white, peripheral)

  • Cones (color vision: each cone responds to a different primary color)


How do we see in color

How do We See in Color?

  • Two theories combine to explain the process

  • Opponent-process Theory(EwaldHering)

    Some color combinations never seen together (blue-yellow)

    Overexposure to one color, will create an afterimage of the opposite color

    Process of experiencing color is excitatory and inhibitory from a individual neurons

    A positive response for one color, will elicit a negative in another


Ap sensation perception

2. Trichromatic (Young-Helmholtz) Theory

Thomas Young proposed that color vision results from the actions of three different receptors.

Proposed this 70 years before the discovery of cones

Further research by Herman von Helmholtz, showed that three different wavelengths of light could be combined to form any visible color in the spectrum


Auditory

Auditory

  • Vibrations of air (aka sound waves) are processed by the auditory system into sounds

  • Sound is funneled into the inner ear from the pinna (outer ear) to the eardrum, which causes the ear bones to vibrate against the cochlea. The fluid in the cochlea is sensed by tiny hairs (cilia), that send a signal to the auditory nerve which is transmitted to the brain

  • Sound waves have two separate elements:

  • Height (amplitude): determines volume

  • Amount (frequency): determines pitch

    Volume is measured in decibels

    See figure on p. 220


Auditory deficiencies

Auditory Deficiencies

  • Deafness: The inability to hear

    Types:

  • Conduction: middle ear bones become rigid. Hearing aids can help

  • Sensorineural: due to damage to the inner ear. Can be helped with a cochlear implant.

  • Environmental (aka “notch”): Caused by overexposure to loud noise (85 db)

  • Illness/Genetics (e.g. Helen Keller)

  • Tinnitus: Ringing of the ears. The sound is internal. Results from overexposure to loud sounds

  • Approximately 30,000,000 people in the U.S. are deaf/hard of hearing


Synesthesia

Synesthesia

  • For most people, only two senses work in concert: olfaction and gustatory

  • For a rare few, their sensory systems work in a unique way (e.g. they can feel colors). This phenomena is known as synesthesia.

  • Synesthesia appears to have genetic components (chromosomes 2, 5, 6, and 12:Asher), and may occur in up to 1% of the population

  • May also be connected to autism (Asher)


The chemical senses olfaction and gustation

The Chemical Senses:Olfaction and Gustation

  • Olfaction: The sense of smell

    Asnomia: inability to smell

    Lock and key theory: different receptors receive different odors.

    Smell + Taste = Flavor

  • Gustation : sense of taste

  • Contrary to long-standing theory, taste buds are located throughout the tongue

  • Six basic tastes: Sweet, salty, bitter, sour, umami, fat

  • What about spicy food?

  • Supertasters


Tactile and minor senses

Tactile and Minor Senses

  • The largest body organ:

  • Four different types of receptors: pain, pressure, heat, cold

  • Vestibular

  • Kinesthetic


Issues in perception

Issues in Perception

  • Perception is learned, and is based on the individual’s interpretation of the sensation.

  • New sensations are compared to ones experienced in the past, which is called frame of reference

  • Subliminal perception: Being able to perceive stimuli below the known conscious threshold (limen). Use of this in advertising is controversial and illegal in the U.S.


Illusions and hallucinations

Illusions and Hallucinations

  • Illusion: Mistakes in perception based on real stimuli

    Examples: FDR, magic

  • Hallucinations: Mistakes in perception based on imaginary stimuli.

    Examples: LSD, delirium tremens


Parapsychology

Parapsychology

  • Extrasensory Perception (ESP): The ability to receive stimuli outside the normal sensory system.

  • Does it exist?

    Well…


  • Login